Gas Hydrates pp 97-116 | Cite as

Hydrates Seen as a Problem for the Oil and Gas Industry

Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


This chapter highlights for the reader the problems gas hydrates cause during oil and gas production. Common industrial locations and processes where hydrate formation is a concern are discussed, as well as the various methods to prevent hydrate formation, including water removal, temperature control, and the addition of inhibitors. Different inhibitor types (either thermodynamic or low dosage) are presented along with a discussion on their use and effectiveness. Finally, information is given on the remediation and removal of hydrates if a hydrate plug does occur.


Hydrate Formation Diethylene Glycol Flow Loop Phosphonium Salt Hydrate Stability 


  1. 1.
    Argo CB, Blain RA, Osborne CG, Priestley ID (1997) Commercial deployment of low dosage hydrate inhibitors in a southern North Sea 69 km wet-gas subsea pipeline. In: International symposium on oilfield chemistry, Houston, 18–21 February 1997, SPE 37255Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carroll J (2009) Natural gas hydrates. a guide for engineers, 2nd edn. Gulf-Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Collett TS, Dallimore SR (2002) Detailed analysis of gas hydrate induced drilling and production hazards. In: Proceedings of international conference on gas hydrates 4, Yokohama, 19–23 May 1997, pp 47–52Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hammerschmidt EG (1934) Formation of gas hydrates in natural gas transmission lines. Ind Eng Chem 26(8):851–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hammerschmidt EG (1939) Gas hydrate formation in natural gas pipe lines. Oil Gas J 37(50):66–71Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hawtin RW, Moon C, Rodger PM (2005) Simulation of hydrate kinetic inhibitors: the next level. Proceedings of international conference on gas hydrates 5, Trondheim, 13–16 June, Paper 1048Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hester KC, Dunk RM, Walz PM et al (2007) Direct measurements of multi-component hydrates on the seafloor: pathways to growth. Fluid Phase Eq 261:396–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huo Z, Freer F, Lamar M et al (2001) Hydrate plug prevention by anti-agglomeration. Chem Eng Sci 56:4979–4991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kelland MA (2006) History of the development of low dosage hydrate inhibitors. Energy Fuels 20(3):825–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Klomp UC, Kruka VR, Rejnhart R, Weisenborn AJ (1995) A method for inhibiting the plugging of conduits by gas hydrates. International Patent WO 95/17579, 29 June, international application number PCT/EP94/04248Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klomp UC, Rejnhart R (1996) Method for inhibiting the plugging of conduits by gas hydrates. International Patent WO 96/34177, 31 October 1996, international application number PCT/EP96/01732Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ledermos JP, Long JP, Sum A et al (1996) Effective kinetic inhibitors for natural gas hydrates. Chem Eng Sci 51(8):1221–1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McCain WD (1990) The properties of petroleum fluids. PennWell Books, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (2011) Deepwater: the gulf oil disaster and the future of offshore drilling. US Government, January,
  15. 15.
    Pakulski M, Szymczac S (2008) Twelve years of laboratory and field experience for polyether polyamine gas hydrate inhibitors. In: Proceedings of international conference on gas hydrates 6, Vancouver, 6–10 July 2008, Paper 5347Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rojey A, Jaffret C (1997) Natural gas: production processing transport. Technip, ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sloan ED, Koh CA (2008) Clathrate hydrates of natural gases, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sloan ED, Koh CA, Sum AK (2010) Natural gas hydrates in flow assurance. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Turner DJ, Kleehammer DM, Miller KT et al (2005) Formation of hydrate obstructions in pipelines: hydrate particle development and slurry flow. In: Proceedings of international conference on gas hydrates 5, Trondheim, 13–16 June 2005, Paper 4004Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ingegneria ChimicaUniversity of Rome La SapienzaRomeItaly
  2. 2.TulsaUSA

Personalised recommendations