Advertisement

Perioperative Fluid Management in Enhanced Recovery

  • Krishna K. Varadhan
  • Dileep N. Lobo
Chapter
Part of the Enhanced Recovery book series (ER)

Abstract

Intravenous fluid therapy is an integral component of perioperative care, but this has, till recently, often been based on little evidence and much dogma, and patients have received either too much or too little fluid. Unfortunately, the morbidity resultant from sub-optimal fluid therapy has often been lost in the seriousness of the conditions (such as sepsis and major trauma) that call for the use of fluids [1]. However, resurgence of interest in perioperative fluid therapy in the twenty-first century has yielded good evidence that optimal fluid management is an important determinant of surgical outcome and that, as far as possible, patients should be managed in a state of zero fluid balance, avoiding both overload and underhydration [2–5].

Keywords

Enhance Recovery After Surgery Fluid Therapy Major Abdominal Surgery Mechanical Bowel Preparation Fluid Regimen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Evans GH. The abuse of normal salt solution. JAMA. 1911;57:2126–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abbas SM, Hill AG. Systematic review of the literature for the use of oesophageal Doppler monitor for fluid replacement in major abdominal surgery. Anaesthesia. 2008;63:44–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moore FD, Shires G. Moderation. Ann Surg. 1967;166:300–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Powell-Tuck J, Gosling P, Lobo DN, Allison SP, Carlson GL, Gore M, et al. British consensus guidelines on intravenous fluid therapy for adult surgical patients. GIFTASUP. 2008. Available from: http://www.bapen.org.uk/pdfs/bapen_pubs/giftasup.pdf. Accessed 1 Jan 2011.
  5. 5.
    Varadhan KK, Lobo DN. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of intravenous fluid therapy in major elective open abdominal surgery: getting the balance right. Proc Nutr Soc. 2010;69:488–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maltby JR. Fasting from midnight–the history behind the dogma. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2006;20:363–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ljungqvist O, Soreide E. Preoperative fasting. Br J Surg. 2003;90:400–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sanders G, Mercer SJ, Saeb-Parsey K, Akhavani MA, Hosie KB, Lambert AW. Randomized clinical trial of intravenous fluid replacement during bowel preparation for surgery. Br J Surg. 2001;88:1363–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Slim K, Vicaut E, Launay-Savary MV, Contant C, Chipponi J. Updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials on the role of mechanical bowel preparation before colorectal surgery. Ann Surg. 2009;249:203–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brandstrup B, Tonnesen H, Beier-Holgersen R, Hjortso E, Ording H, Lindorff-Larsen K, et al. Effects of intravenous fluid restriction on postoperative complications: comparison of two perioperative fluid regimens: a randomized assessor-blinded multicenter trial. Ann Surg. 2003;238:641–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lobo DN. Sir David Cuthbertson medal lecture. Fluid, electrolytes and nutrition: physiological and clinical aspects. Proc Nutr Soc. 2004;63:453–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lobo DN. Fluid overload and surgical outcome: another piece in the jigsaw. Ann Surg. 2009;249:186–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lobo DN, Bostock KA, Neal KR, Perkins AC, Rowlands BJ, Allison SP. Effect of salt and water balance on recovery of gastrointestinal function after elective colonic resection: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359:1812–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marjanovic G, Villain C, Juettner E, zur Hausen A, Hoeppner J, Hopt UT, et al. Impact of different crystalloid volume regimes on intestinal anastomotic stability. Ann Surg. 2009;249:181–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nisanevich V, Felsenstein I, Almogy G, Weissman C, Einav S, Matot I. Effect of intraoperative fluid management on outcome after intraabdominal surgery. Anesthesiology. 2005;103:25–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McArdle GT, McAuley DF, McKinley A, Blair P, Hoper M, Harkin DW. Preliminary results of a prospective randomized trial of restrictive versus standard fluid regime in elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Ann Surg. 2009;250:28–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rahbari NN, Zimmermann JB, Schmidt T, Koch M, Weigand MA, Weitz J. Meta-analysis of standard, restrictive and supplemental fluid administration in colorectal surgery. Br J Surg. 2009;96:331–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lassen K, Soop M, Nygren J, Cox PB, Hendry PO, Spies C, et al. Consensus review of optimal perioperative care in colorectal surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Group recommendations. Arch Surg. 2009;144:961–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lobo DN, Dube MG, Neal KR, Simpson J, Rowlands BJ, Allison SP. Problems with solutions: drowning in the brine of an inadequate knowledge base. Clin Nutr. 2001;20:125–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stoneham MD, Hill EL. Variability in post-operative fluid and electrolyte prescription. Br J Clin Pract. 1997;51:82–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lobo DN, Stanga Z, Aloysius MM, Wicks C, Nunes QM, Ingram KL, et al. Effect of volume loading with 1 liter intravenous infusions of 0.9% saline, 4% succinylated gelatine (Gelofusine) and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (Voluven) on blood volume and endocrine responses: a randomized, three-way crossover study in healthy volunteers. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:464–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Itobi E, Stroud M, Elia M. Impact of oedema on recovery after major abdominal surgery and potential value of multifrequency bioimpedance measurements. Br J Surg. 2006;93:354–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Awad S, Allison SP, Lobo DN. The history of 0.9% saline. Clin Nutr. 2008;27:179–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lazarus-Barlow WS. On the initial rate of osmosis of blood-serum with reference to the composition of “physiological saline solution” in mammals. J Physiol. 1896;20:145–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hamburger HJ. A discourse on permeability in physiology and pathology. Lancet. 1921;198:1039–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Veech RL. The toxic impact of parenteral solutions on the metabolism of cells: a hypothesis for physiological parenteral therapy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;44:519–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wakim KG. ‘Normal’ 0.9 per cent salt solution is neither ‘normal’ nor physiological. JAMA. 1970;214:1710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    O’Malley CM, Frumento RJ, Hardy MA, Benvenisty AI, Brentjens TE, Mercer JS, et al. A randomized, double-blind comparison of lactated Ringer’s solution and 0.9% NaCl during renal transplantation. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:1518–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Waters JH, Gottlieb A, Schoenwald P, Popovich MJ, Sprung J, Nelson DR. Normal saline versus lactated Ringer’s solution for intraoperative fluid management in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: an outcome study. Anesth Analg. 2001;93:817–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ho AM, Karmakar MK, Contardi LH, Ng SS, Hewson JR. Excessive use of normal saline in managing traumatized patients in shock: a preventable contributor to acidosis. J Trauma. 2001;51:173–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Drummer C, Gerzer R, Heer M, Molz B, Bie P, Schlossberger M, et al. Effects of an acute saline infusion on fluid and electrolyte metabolism in humans. Am J Physiol. 1992;262:F744–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lobo DN, Stanga Z, Simpson JAD, Anderson JA, Rowlands BJ, Allison SP. Dilution and redistribution effects of rapid 2-litre infusions of 0.9% (w/v) saline and 5% (w/v) dextrose on haematological parameters and serum biochemistry in normal subjects: a double-blind crossover study. Clin Sci (Lond). 2001;101:173–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reid F, Lobo DN, Williams RN, Rowlands BJ, Allison SP. (Ab)normal saline and physiological Hartmann’s solution: a randomized double-blind crossover study. Clin Sci (Lond). 2003;104:17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moore FD. Metabolic care of the surgical patient. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1959.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wilkinson AW, Billing BH, Nagy G, Stewart CP. Excretion of chloride and sodium after surgical operations. Lancet. 1949;1:640–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gosling P. Salt of the earth or a drop in the ocean? A pathophysiological approach to fluid resuscitation. Emerg Med J. 2003;20:306–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wilkes NJ, Woolf R, Mutch M, Mallett SV, Peachey T, Stephens R, et al. The effects of balanced versus saline-based hetastarch and crystalloid solutions on acid-base and electrolyte status and gastric mucosal perfusion in elderly surgical patients. Anesth Analg. 2001;93:811–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Williams EL, Hildebrand KL, McCormick SA, Bedel MJ. The effect of intravenous lactated Ringer’s solution versus 0.9% sodium chloride solution on serum osmolality in human volunteers. Anesth Analg. 1999;88:999–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wilcox CS. Regulation of renal blood flow by plasma chloride. J Clin Invest. 1983;71:726–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Matthay MA, Fukuda N, Frank J, Kallet R, Daniel B, Sakuma T. Alveolar epithelial barrier. Role in lung fluid balance in clinical lung injury. Clin Chest Med. 2000;21:477–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wade CE, Grady JJ, Kramer GC, Younes RN, Gehlsen K, Holcroft JW. Individual patient cohort analysis of the efficacy of hypertonic saline/dextran in patients with traumatic brain injury and hypotension. J Trauma. 1997;42:S61–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mecray PM, Barden RP, Ravdin IS. Nutritional edema: its effect on the gastric emptying time before and after gastric operations. Surgery. 1937;1:53–64.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tournadre JP, Allaouchiche B, Malbert CH, Chassard D. Metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis impair gastro-pyloric motility in anesthetized pigs. Anesth Analg. 2000;90:74–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mayberry JC, Welker KJ, Goldman RK, Mullins RJ. Mechanism of acute ascites formation after trauma resuscitation. Arch Surg. 2003;138:773–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Balogh Z, McKinley BA, Cocanour CS, Kozar RA, Valdivia A, Sailors RM, et al. Supranormal trauma resuscitation causes more cases of abdominal compartment syndrome. Arch Surg. 2003;138:637–42; discussion 642–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Macafee DA, Allison SP, Lobo DN. Some interactions between gastrointestinal function and fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2005;8:197–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Holte K, Sharrock NE, Kehlet H. Pathophysiology and clinical implications of perioperative fluid excess. Br J Anaesth. 2002;89:622–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cotton BA, Guy JS, Morris Jr JA. The cellular, metabolic, and systemic consequences of aggressive fluid resuscitation strategies. Shock. 2006;26:115–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ringer S. Concerning the influence exerted by each of the constituents of the blood on the contraction of the ventricle. J Physiol. 1882;3:380–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cushing H. Concerning the poisonous effect of pure sodium chloride solutions upon the nerve-muscle preparation. Am J Physiol. 1901;6:77–90.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vermeulen H, Hofland J, Legemate DA, Ubbink DT. Intravenous fluid restriction after major abdominal surgery: a randomized blinded clinical trial. Trials. 2009;10:50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bellamy MC. Wet, dry or something else? Br J Anaesth. 2006;97:755–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lobo DN, Allison SP. Fluid, electrolyte and nutrient replacement. In: Burnand KG, Young AE, Lucas J, Rowlands BJ, Scholefield J, editors. The new aird’s companion in surgical studies. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2005. p. 20–41.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mythen MG, Webb AR. Intra-operative gut mucosal hypoperfusion is associated with increased post-operative complications and cost. Intensive Care Med. 1994;20:99–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kaye AD, Grogono AW. Fluid and electrolyte physiology. In: Miller RD, Cucchiara RF, Miller Jr ED, Reves JG, Roizen MF, Savarese JJ, editors. Anesthesia, vol. 1. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2000. p. 1586–612.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lamke LO, Liljedahl SO. Plasma volume changes after infusion of various plasma expanders. Resuscitation. 1976;5:93–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Svensen C, Hahn RG. Volume kinetics of Ringer solution, dextran 70, and hypertonic saline in male volunteers. Anesthesiology. 1997;87:204–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lane N, Allen K. Hyponatraemia after orthopaedic surgery. BMJ. 1999;318:1363–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nolan J. Fluid replacement. Br Med Bull. 1999;55:821–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Boldt J. Volume replacement in the surgical patient - does the type of solution make a difference? Br J Anaesth. 2000;84:783–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hiltebrand LB, Kimberger O, Arnberger M, Brandt S, Kurz A, Sigurdsson GH. Crystalloids versus colloids for goal-directed fluid therapy in major surgery. Crit Care. 2009;13:R40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Alderson P, Schierhout G, Roberts I, Bunn F. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000567.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bunn F, Alderson P, Hawkins V. Colloid solutions for fluid resuscitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001319.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Choi PTL, Yip G, Quinonez LG, Cook DJ. Crystalloids vs. colloids in fluid resuscitation: a systematic review. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:200–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Perel P, Roberts I. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(4):CD000567.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Senagore AJ, Emery T, Luchtefeld M, Kim D, Dujovny N, Hoedema R. Fluid management for laparoscopic colectomy: a prospective, randomized assessment of goal-directed administration of balanced salt solution or hetastarch coupled with an enhanced recovery program. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:1935–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bisonni RS, Holtgrave DR, Lawler F, Marley DS. Colloids versus crystalloids in fluid resuscitation - an analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Fam Pract. 1991;32:387–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Simmonds PD, Best L, George S, Baughan C, Buchanan R, Davis C, et al. Surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients: a systematic review. Colorectal Cancer Collaborative Group. Lancet 2000;356:968–74.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Desborough JP. The stress response to trauma and surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2000;85:109–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Alsous F, Khamiees M, DeGirolamo A, Amoateng-Adjepong Y, Manthous CA. Negative fluid balance predicts survival in patients with septic shock: a retrospective pilot study. Chest. 2000; 117:1749–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Joshi GP. Intraoperative fluid restriction improves outcome after major elective gastrointestinal surgery. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:601–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Holte K, Foss NB, Andersen J, Valentiner L, Lund C, Bie P, et al. Liberal or restrictive fluid administration in fast-track colonic surgery: a randomized, double-blind study. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99:500–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gonzalez-Fajardo JA, Mengibar L, Brizuela JA, Castrodeza J, Vaquero-Puerta C. Effect of postoperative restrictive fluid therapy in the recovery of patients with abdominal vascular surgery. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;37:538–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    MacKay G, Fearon K, McConnachie A, Serpell MG, Molloy RG, O’Dwyer PJ. Randomized clinical trial of the effect of postoperative intravenous fluid restriction on recovery after elective colorectal surgery. Br J Surg. 2006;93:1469–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kabon B, Akca O, Taguchi A, Nagele A, Jebadurai R, Arkilic CF, et al. Supplemental intravenous crystalloid administration does not reduce the risk of surgical wound infection. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:1546–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lobo DN, Macafee DA, Allison SP. How perioperative fluid balance influences postoperative outcomes. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2006;20:439–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Junghans T, Neuss H, Strohauer M, Raue W, Haase O, Schink T, et al. Hypovolemia after traditional preoperative care in patients undergoing colonic surgery is underrepresented in conventional hemodynamic monitoring. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006;21:693–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mowatt G, Houston G, Hernandez R, de Verteuil R, Fraser C, Cuthbertson B, et al. Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of oesophageal Doppler monitoring in critically ill and high-risk surgical patients. Health Technol Assess. 2009;13:iii–iv. ix–xii, 1–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Green D, Paklet L. Latest developments in peri-operative monitoring of the high-risk major surgery patient. Int J Surg. 2010;8:90–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pearse R, Dawson D, Fawcett J, Rhodes A, Grounds RM, Bennett ED. Early goal-directed therapy after major surgery reduces complications and duration of hospital stay. A randomised, controlled trial [ISRCTN38797445]. Crit Care. 2005;9:R687–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Belloni L, Pisano A, Natale A, Piccirillo MR, Piazza L, Ismeno G, et al. Assessment of fluid-responsiveness parameters for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: a comparison among LiDCO, transesophageal echochardiography, and pulmonary artery catheter. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;22:243–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pearse RM, Ikram K, Barry J. Equipment review: an appraisal of the LiDCO plus method of measuring cardiac output. Crit Care. 2004;8:190–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pittman J, Bar-Yosef S, SumPing J, Sherwood M, Mark J. Continuous cardiac output monitoring with pulse contour analysis: a comparison with lithium indicator dilution cardiac output measurement. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:2015–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bundgaard-Nielsen M, Ruhnau B, Secher NH, Kehlet H. Flow-related techniques for preoperative goal-directed fluid optimization. Br J Anaesth. 2007;98:38–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pearse RM, Rhodes A, Grounds RM. Clinical review: how to optimize management of high-risk surgical patients. Crit Care. 2004;8:503–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Noblett SE, Snowden CP, Shenton BK, Horgan AF. Randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of Doppler-optimized fluid management on outcome after elective colorectal resection. Br J Surg. 2006;93:1069–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Conway DH, Mayall R, Abdul-Latif MS, Gilligan S, Tackaberry C. Randomised controlled trial investigating the influence of intravenous fluid titration using oesophageal Doppler monitoring during bowel surgery. Anaesthesia. 2002;57:845–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gan TJ, Soppitt A, Maroof M, el-Moalem H, Robertson KM, Moretti E, et al. Goal-directed intraoperative fluid administration reduces length of hospital stay after major surgery. Anesthesiology. 2002;97:820–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wakeling HG, McFall MR, Jenkins CS, Woods WG, Miles WF, Barclay GR, et al. Intraoperative oesophageal Doppler guided fluid management shortens postoperative hospital stay after major bowel surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2005;95:634–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Donati A, Loggi S, Preiser JC, Orsetti G, Munch C, Gabbanelli V, et al. Goal-directed intraoperative therapy reduces morbidity and length of hospital stay in high-risk surgical patients. Chest. 2007;132:1817–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Boyd O, Grounds RM, Bennett ED. A randomized clinical trial of the effect of deliberate perioperative increase of oxygen delivery on mortality in high-risk surgical patients. JAMA. 1993;270:2699–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shoemaker WC, Appel PL, Kram HB, Waxman K, Lee TS. Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients. Chest. 1988;94:1176–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wilson J, Woods I, Fawcett J, Whall R, Dibb W, Morris C, et al. Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery. BMJ. 1999;318:1099–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bundgaard-Nielsen M, Jorgensen CC, Secher NH, Kehlet H. Functional intravascular volume deficit in patients before surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54:464–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Walsh SR, Tang T, Bass S, Gaunt ME. Doppler-guided intra-operative fluid management during major abdominal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Clin Pract. 2008;62:466–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sinclair S, James S, Singer M. Intraoperative intravascular volume optimisation and length of hospital stay after repair of proximal femoral fracture: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 1997;315:909–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Venn R, Steele A, Richardson P, Poloniecki J, Grounds M, Newman P. Randomized controlled trial to investigate influence of the fluid challenge on duration of hospital stay and perioperative morbidity in patients with hip fractures. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88:65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Stone MD, Wilson RJ, Cross J, Williams BT. Effect of adding dopexamine to intraoperative volume expansion in patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2003;91:619–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Davies SJ, Yates D, Wilson RJ. Dopexamine has no additional benefit in high-risk patients receiving goal-directed fluid therapy undergoing major abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:130–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    White PF, Kehlet H, Neal JM, Schricker T, Carr DB, Carli F. The role of the anesthesiologist in fast-track surgery: from multimodal analgesia to perioperative medical care. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:1380–96, table of contents.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chung HM, Kluge R, Schrier RW, Anderson RJ. Clinical assessment of extracellular fluid volume in hyponatremia. Am J Med. 1987;83:905–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bamboat ZM, Bordeianou L. Perioperative fluid management. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2009;22:28–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Holte K, Nielsen KG, Madsen JL, Kehlet H. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:1397–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Guenaga KF, Matos D, Castro AA, Atallah AN, Wille-Jorgensen P. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(1):CD001544.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Platell C, Hall J. What is the role of mechanical bowel preparation in patients undergoing colorectal surgery? Dis Colon Rectum. 1998;41:875–82; discussion 882–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ram E, Sherman Y, Weil R, Vishne T, Kravarusic D, Dreznik Z. Is mechanical bowel preparation mandatory for elective colon surgery? A prospective randomized study. Arch Surg. 2005;140:285–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jung B, Pahlman L, Nystrom PO, Nilsson E. Multicentre randomized clinical trial of mechanical bowel preparation in elective colonic resection. Br J Surg. 2007;94:689–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Slim K, Vicaut E, Panis Y, Chipponi J. Meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of colorectal surgery with or without mechanical bowel preparation. Br J Surg. 2004;91:1125–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sanders G, Arthur CH, Hosie KB, Lambert AW. Is patient outcome affected by the administration of intravenous fluid during bowel preparation for colonic surgery? Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2007;89:487–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Thorell A, Nygren J, Ljungqvist O. Insulin resistance: a marker of surgical stress. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1999;2:69–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Thorell A, Efendic S, Gutniak M, Haggmark T, Ljungqvist O. Development of postoperative insulin resistance is associated with the magnitude of operation. Eur J Surg. 1993;159:593–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hendry PO, Balfour A, Potter MA, Mander BJ, Bartolo DC, Anderson DN, et al. Preoperative conditioning with oral carbohydrate loading and oral nutritional supplements can be combined with mechanical bowel preparation prior to elective colorectal resection. Colorectal Dis. 2008;10:907–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Brady M, Kinn S, Stuart P. Preoperative fasting for adults to prevent perioperative complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD004423.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Starker PM, Lasala PA, Askanazi J, Gump FE, Forse RA, Kinney JM. The response to TPN. A form of nutritional assessment. Ann Surg. 1983;198:720–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gil MJ, Franch G, Guirao X, Oliva A, Herms R, Salas E, et al. Response of severely malnourished patients to preoperative parenteral nutrition: a randomized clinical trial of water and sodium restriction. Nutrition. 1997;13:26–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Arieff AI. Fatal postoperative pulmonary edema: pathogenesis and literature review. Chest. 1999;115:1371–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Tambyraja AL, Sengupta F, MacGregor AB, Bartolo DC, Fearon KC. Patterns and clinical outcomes associated with routine intravenous sodium and fluid administration after colorectal resection. World J Surg. 2004;28:1046–51; discussion 1051–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lowell JA, Schifferdecker C, Driscoll DF, Benotti PN, Bistrian BR. Postoperative fluid overload: not a benign problem. Crit Care Med. 1990;18:728–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Miedema BW, Johnson JO. Methods for decreasing postoperative gut dysmotility. Lancet Oncol. 2003;4:365–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rusch D, Eberhart L, Biedler A, Dethling J, Apfel CC. Prospective application of a simplified risk score to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth. 2005;52:478–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Apfel CC, Kranke P, Eberhart LH, Roos A, Roewer N. Comparison of predictive models for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88:234–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Carlisle JB, Stevenson CA. Drugs for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(3): CD004125.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wallenborn J, Gelbrich G, Bulst D, Behrends K, Wallenborn H, Rohrbach A, et al. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting by metoclopramide combined with dexamethasone: randomised double blind multicentre trial. BMJ. 2006;333:324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nelson R, Edwards S, Tse B. Prophylactic nasogastric decompression after abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(3): CD004929.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Andersen HK, Lewis SJ, Thomas S. Early enteral nutrition within 24 h of colorectal surgery versus later commencement of feeding for postoperative complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006: CD004080.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Holte K, Foss NB, Svensen C, Lund C, Madsen JL, Kehlet H. Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume. Anesthesiology. 2004;100:281–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krishna K. Varadhan
    • 1
  • Dileep N. Lobo
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre NIHR Biomedical Research UnitNottingham University Hospitals, Queen’s Medical CentreNottingham, NottsUK
  2. 2.Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre NIHR Biomedical Research UnitNottingham University Hospitals, Queen’s Medical CentreNottingham, NottsUK

Personalised recommendations