Dutch Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Have Antibodies to Proteus

  • Alan Ebringer


In the early 1980s, the Immunology Unit of King’s College had shown that there were elevated levels of antibodies to the Gram-negative bowel microbe Klebsiella in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis.

In 1992, I was attending a Rheumatology Congress in Barcelona when the late Professor Bert Feltkamp from Amsterdam approached me and said: ‘Alan, we have done 3 studies in the Netherlands and we cannot find antibodies in our Dutch ankylosing spondylitis patients as you do in London. It must be the London water’. Clearly, here was a challenge as I knew there was nothing wrong with the London water.


Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Ankylose Spondylitis Anterior Uveitis Proteus Mirabilis 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Ebringer
    • 1
  1. 1.King’s College London Division of Life SciencesUCH School of MedicineLondonUK

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