Immune Responses to Proteus in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients from Finland and Japan

  • Alan Ebringer


In 2003, Dr. Marjatta Leirisalo and Dr. Leena Paimela from Helsinki brought sera from rheumatoid arthritis patients to London to be investigated for antibodies to Proteus as well as against peptide sequences crossreacting with HLA-DR1/4 antigens.


Rheumatoid Arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Japanese Patient Early Rheumatoid Arthritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Carty SM, Snowden M, Silman AJ. Should infection still be considered as the most likely triggering factor for rheumatoid arthritis ? J Rheumatol. 2003;30:425–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Nakai Y, Wakisaka A, Aizawa M, Itakura K, Nakai H, Ohashi A. HLA and rheumatoid arthritis in Japanese. Arthritis Rheum. 1981;24:722–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Rashid T, Leirisalo-Repo M, Tani Y, Hukuda S, Kobayashi S, Wilson C, et al. Antibacterial and antipeptide antibodies in Japanese and Finnish patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2004;23:134–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Wallin J, Hillert J, Olerup O, Carlsson B, Strom H. Association of rheumatoid arthritis with a dominant DR1/Dw4, Dw14 sequence motif, but not with a T cell receptor β chain gene alleles or haplotypes. Arthritis Rheum. 1991;34:1416–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Ebringer
    • 1
  1. 1.King’s College London Division of Life SciencesUCH School of MedicineLondonUK

Personalised recommendations