Antibodies to Proteus in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients from Southern Japan

  • Alan Ebringer


In the early 1980s, the Immunology Unit of King’s College had shown that there were elevated levels of antibodies to the Gram-negative bowel microbe Klebsiella in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis. These patients were being investigated in the ‘Ankylosing spondylitis Research Unit’ of the Middlesex Hospital which had been set up in 1976 to study why up to 96% of ankylosing spondylitis with this disease possessed the HLA-B27 Major Histocompatibility group antigen whilst the frequency of this antigen in the general population of England or of the USA was only 8%.


Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Klebsiella Pneumoniae Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Proteus Mirabilis 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Ebringer
    • 1
  1. 1.King’s College London Division of Life SciencesUCH School of MedicineLondonUK

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