Other Biological Therapies in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

  • Pilar Brito-Zerón
  • Cándido Diaz-Lagares
  • M. Jose Soto-Cárdenas
  • Manuel Ramos-Casals
  • Munther A. Khamashta


Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects the exocrine glands and usually presents as persistent dryness of the mouth and eyes. SS typically affects white perimenopausal women, with an incidence of 4–5 cases per 100,000. At present, there is no treatment capable of modifying the evolution of SS and the therapeutic approach is based on symptomatic replacement or stimulation of glandular secretions, using substitutive and oral muscarinic agents. Extraglandular involvement requires organ-specific therapy generally based upon some combination of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents, similar to that applied in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [1].


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic Autoimmune Disease Chronic Plaque Psoriasis Minor Salivary Gland Biopsy Anticytokine Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pilar Brito-Zerón
    • 1
  • Cándido Diaz-Lagares
    • 1
  • M. Jose Soto-Cárdenas
    • 2
  • Manuel Ramos-Casals
    • 3
  • Munther A. Khamashta
    • 4
  1. 1.Sjögren Syndrome Research Group (AGAUR), Laboratory of Autoimmune Diseases Josep FontInstitut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of Cadiz, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Puerta del MarCadizSpain
  3. 3.Spanish Group of Autoimmune Diseases (GEAS), Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI), Sjögren Syndrome Research Group (AGAUR), Laboratory of Autoimmune Diseases Josep Font, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Department of Autoimmune DiseasesICMD Hospital ClínicBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Lupus Research UnitThe Rayne Institute, King’s College London School of Medicine at Guy’s, King’s and St Thomas’ Hospitals, St Thomas’ HospitalLondonUK

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