Classic Immunosuppressive and Immunomodulatory Drugs

  • Clio P. Mavragani
  • Stuart S. Kassan


Symptoms of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) are chronic and can sometimes be devastating, compromising patients’ quality of life to a major degree. Despite the advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of SS, its therapy remains largely empiric, symptomatic, and focused on alleviating sicca symptoms. Eye lubricants, saliva substitutes, and stimulators of the glandular secretion are the cornerstones of therapy in SS. Despite the autoimmune nature of the disorder, evidence for the use of immunosuppressive agents, the mainstay of therapy of diseases of autoimmune origin, is scarce. In an attempt to alleviate the symptoms of SS by altering the natural disease process, a number of immunosuppressive agents have been tested in clinical studies, mostly with unsatisfactory or questionable results (Table 38.1).


Interstitial Lung Disease Musculoskeletal Complaint Saliva Substitute Sicca Symptom Parotid Gland Enlargement 
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© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clio P. Mavragani
    • 1
  • Stuart S. Kassan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Experimental Physiology, School of MedicineUniversity of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.University of Colorado Health Sciences CenterDenverUSA

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