Endocrine Involvement

  • Luis J. Jara
  • Gabriela Medina
  • Carmen Navarro
  • Olga Vera-Lastra
  • Miguel A. Saavedra


Over the last decades much evidence of communication between the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems has accumulated. This communication has a solid molecular basis. The messengers are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, cytokines, and their receptors. These messengers have endocrine action (at a distance), paracrine action (on the neighboring cells), and autocrine action (on the cells themselves). The integrated bidirectional communication of the three systems, now called the immune-neuroendocrine system, regulates the adaptive response to stress [1]. Stressful situations, such as the ones induced by an inflammatory or infectious process, the activation of autoimmunity, trauma, surgery, and emotional events, trigger a series of reactions that activate the immune-neuroendocrine system.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Salivary Gland Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Corticotropin Release Hormone Minor Salivary Gland 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis J. Jara
    • 1
  • Gabriela Medina
    • 2
  • Carmen Navarro
    • 3
  • Olga Vera-Lastra
    • 4
  • Miguel A. Saavedra
    • 5
  1. 1.Direction of Education and ResearchHospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico La Raza, IMSS, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Clinical and Epidemiology Research UnitHospital de Especialidades Centro Médico La Raza, IMSSMexico CityMexico
  3. 3.Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, SSAMexico CityMexico
  4. 4.Department of Internal MedicineHospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, IMSS, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMexico
  5. 5.Department of RheumatologyHospital de Especialidades Centro Médico La Raza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMexico

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