Nephro-Urological Involvement

  • Andreas V. Goules
  • Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos


One of the parenchymal organs that can be affected in patients with Sjögren’s ­syndrome (SS) is the kidney [1]. Kidneys in primary SS (pSS) can be a target of the immune system either by activated lymphocytes that infiltrate the renal interstitium resulting in interstitial nephritis (IN) or by an immune complex mediated process appearing as glomerulonephritis (GN). Furthermore, epidemiologic and immunologic data suggest an association between SS and painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC), a chronic pelvic pain syndrome that produces lower urinary symptoms such as discomfort related to bladder, nocturia, frequency, and urge to void [1].


Lupus Nephritis Interstitial Nephritis Renal Tubular Acidosis Mixed Cryoglobulinemia Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas V. Goules
    • 1
  • Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathophysiology, School of MedicineUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

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