Liver Involvement in Sjögren’s Syndrome

  • George E. Fragoulis
  • Fotini N. Skopouli
  • Carlo Selmi
  • M. Eric Gershwin


Liver involvement in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is commonly subclinical and almost never appears as the first manifestation of the disease. The prevalence of liver involvement in SS varies among series and depends on the diagnostic criteria used. Studies conducted in the 1960s, based on clinical (i.e., liver enlargement) and serological (i.e., elevated alkaline phosphatase) findings estimated the SS liver involvement as high as 20% [1]. A somewhat lower prevalence of liver disease has been reported in more recent studies, with estimates ranging from 2% to 20% of SS patients [2–6].


Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Liver Involvement Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Patient Salivary Gland Epithelial Cell Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Case 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • George E. Fragoulis
    • 1
  • Fotini N. Skopouli
    • 2
  • Carlo Selmi
    • 3
    • 4
  • M. Eric Gershwin
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Pathophysiology, School of MedicineNational University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Dietetics and Nutritional ScienceHarokopio University of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical ImmunologyUniversity of California at DavisDavisUSA
  4. 4.Department of Translational Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico HumanitasUniversity of MilanRozzano (MI)Italy
  5. 5.Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Genome and Biomedical Sciences FacilityUniversity of California at DavisDavisUSA

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