• Yannis Alamanos
  • Alexandros A. Drosos


Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of exocrine glands, mainly the lacrimal and salivary glands. The disease may occur either independently (primary SS) or in association with other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and systemic lupus erythematosus (secondary SS) [1, 2].


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Prevalence Estimate Case Identification Minor Salivary Gland Olmsted County 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Moutsopoulos HM, Youinou P. New developments in Sjögren’s syndrome. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1991;3:815–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moutsopoulos HM. Sjögren’s syndrome: autoimmune epithelitis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1994;72:162–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Strömbeck B, Ekdahl C, Manthorpe R, et al. Health-related quality of life in primary Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia compared to normal population data using SF-36. Scand J Rheumatol. 2000;29:20–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bowman SJ, Booth DA, Platts RG. UK Sjögren’s Interest Group: measurement of fatigue and discomfort in primary Sjogren’s syndrome using a new questionnaire tool. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004;43:758–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Moutsopoulos HM, et al. Preliminary criteria for the classification of Sjögren’s syndrome. Results of a prospective concerted action supported by the European Community. Arthritis Rheum. 1993;36:340–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vitali C, Moutsopoulos HM, Bombardieri S. The European Community Study Group on diagnostic criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. Sensitivity and specificity of tests for ocular and oral involvement in Sjögren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 1994;53:637–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Moutsopoulos HM, et al. Assessment of the European classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome in a series of clinically defined cases: results of a prospective multicentre study. The European Study Group on Diagnostic Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 1996;55:116–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fox RI, Robinson C, Curd J, et al. First international symposium on Sjögren’s syndrome: ­suggested criteria for classification. Scand J Rheumatol. 1986;61(Suppl):28–30.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Homma M, Tojo T, Akizuki M, et al. Criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome in Japan. Scand J Rheumatol. 1986;61(Suppl):26–7.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Manthorpe R, Oxholm P, Prause JU, et al. The Copenhagen criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol. 1986;61(Suppl):19–21.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Skopouli FN, Drosos AA, Papaioannou T, et al. Preliminary diagnostic criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol. 1986;61(Suppl):22–5.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Jonsson R, et al. Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:554–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Binard A, Devauchelle-Pensec V, Fautrel B, Jousse S, Youinou P, Saraux A. Epidemiology of Sjögren’s syndrome: where are we now? Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2007;25:1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alamanos Y, Tsifetaki N, Voulgari PV, et al. Epidemiology of primary Sjögren’s syndrome in north-west Greece, 1982–2003. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006;45:187–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pillemer SR, Matteson EL, Jacobsson LT, et al. Incidence of physician-diagnosed primary Sjögren syndrome in residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:593–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Plesivcnik Novljan M, Rozman B, Hocevar A, et al. Incidence of primary Sjogren’s syndrome in Slovenia. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63:874–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Drosos AA, Tsiakou EK, Tsifetaki N, et al. Subgroups of primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Sjögren’s syndrome in male and paediatric Greek patients. Ann Rheum Dis. 1997;56:333–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cimaz R, Casadei A, Rose C, et al. Primary Sjögren syndrome in the paediatric age: a multicentre survey. Eur J Pediatr. 2003;162:661–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thomas E, Hay EM, Hajeer A, et al. Sjögren’s syndrome: a community-based study of prevalence and impact. Br J Rheumatol. 1998;37:1069–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tomsic M, Logar D, Grmek M, et al. Prevalence of Sjögren’s syndrome in Slovenia. Rheumatology (Oxford). 1999;38:164–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dafni UG, Tzioufas AG, Staikos P, et al. Prevalence of Sjögren’s syndrome in a closed rural community. Ann Rheum Dis. 1997;56:521–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang NZ, Shi CS, Yao QP, et al. Prevalence of primary Sjögren’s syndrome in China. J Rheumatol. 1995;22:659–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Miyasaka N. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Sjögren’s syndrome. Nippon Rinsho. 1995;53:2367–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Trontzas PI, Andrianakos AA. Sjogren’s syndrome: a population based study of prevalence in Greece. The ESORDIG study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:1240–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Birlik M, Akar S, Gurler O, et al. Prevalence of primary Sjögren’s syndrome in an urban population of Izmir, Turkey. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63(Suppl I):502.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kabasakal Y, Kitapcioglu G, Turk T, et al. Prevalence of Sjögren’s syndrome in Izmir, Turkey. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63(Suppl I):503.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alamanos Y, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA. Epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in Greece. J Rheumatol. 2004;31:1669–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Drosos AA, Andonopoulos AP, Costopoulos JS, et al. Prevalence of primary Sjögren’s ­syndrome in an elderly population. Br J Rheumatol. 1988;27:123–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schein OD, Hochberg MC, Muñoz B, et al. Dry eye and dry mouth in the elderly: a population-based assessment. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:1359–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hochberg MC, Tielsch J, Munoz B, et al. Prevalence of symptoms of dry mouth and their relationship to saliva production in community dwelling elderly: the SEE project. Salisbury Eye Evaluation. J Rheumatol. 1998;25:486–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Radfar L, Kleiner DE, Fox PC, et al. Prevalence and clinical significance of lymphocytic foci in minor salivary glands of healthy volunteers. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;47(5):520–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Xu KP, Katagiri S, Takeuchi T, et al. Biopsy of labial salivary glands and lacrimal glands in the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome. J Rheumatol. 1996;23:76–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pennec YL, Leroy JP, Jouquan J, et al. Comparison of labial and sublingual salivary gland biopsies in the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 1990;49:37–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ng KP, Isenberg DA. Sjögren’s syndrome: diagnosis and therapeutic challenges in the elderly. Drugs Aging. 2008;25:19–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yannis Alamanos
    • 1
  • Alexandros A. Drosos
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Public Health, Medical SchoolUniversity of PatrasRioGreece
  2. 2.Rheumatology Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical SchoolUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece

Personalised recommendations