Congestive Heart Failure

  • Susan F. Lien
  • Jeffrey D. Alexis


Heart failure (HF) is an epidemic disorder that currently affects more than 5 million people in the United States, with an estimated 550,000 new diagnoses each year. Given the increasing age of the population and the improved survival of patients from acute myocardial infarctions and other diseases, the incidence of heart failure will undoubtedly continue to grow. Current data from the NHLBI’s Framingham Heart Study suggests that at age 40, the lifetime risk of developing heart failure for both men and women is approximately one in five (or 20%), and 1- and 5-year mortality is about 30% and 50%, respectively. The Framingham study suggests that patients with heart failure have mortality rates four to eight times higher compared to the general population of the same age. Hospital discharges for HF rose from 877,000 in 1996 to 1,106,000 in 2006. Furthermore, the estimated cost of HF in the United States for 2010 is $39.2 billion. However, appropriate recognition and early treatment of heart failure, risk factors, and use of evidence-based therapies in patients already diagnosed with heart failure can help to prevent this expected increase in HF incidence and reduce the mortality, number of hospitalizations, and health care costs associated with this disorder.


Heart Failure Chronic Heart Failure Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Leave Ventricular Assist Device Heart Failure With Preserve Ejection Fraction 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of CardiologyUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA

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