Face Recognition Applications

  • Thomas HuangEmail author
  • Ziyou Xiong
  • Zhenqiu Zhang


As one of the most nonintrusive biometrics, face recognition technology is becoming ever closer to people’s daily lives. Evidence of this is that in 2000 the International Civil Aviation Organization endorsed facial recognition as the most suitable biometrics for air travel. To our knowledge, no review papers are available on the newly enlarged application scenarios since then. We hope this chapter will be an extension of the previous studies. We review many face recognition applications that have already used face recognition technologies. This set of applications is a much larger super-set of previously reviewed. We also review some other new scenarios that will potentially utilize face recognition technologies in the near future.


Face Recognition Face Image False Alarm Rate Smart Card Face Detection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We sincerely thank Dr. Ying Wu, Northwestern University, Dr. Lawrence Chen, Kodak Research Lab, Dr. Javier Ruiz-del-Solar, Universidad de Chile, Chile, and Dr. Julian L. Center, Jr., Lau Technologies for providing some of the pictures and their permission to use them in the paper. We also want to thank Dr. Anil K. Jain, Michigan State University for giving us helpful suggestions on improving the manuscript.


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Bryliuk, D., Starovoitov, V.: Access control by face recognition using neural networks and negative examples. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 428–436 (2002) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bunney, C.: Survey: face recognition systems. Biom. Technol. Today 8–12 (1997) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chan, Y., Lin, S.-H., Kung, S.: Video indexing and retrieval. In: Sheu, B.J., Ismail, M., Wang, M.Y., Tsai, R.H. (eds.) Multimedia Technology for Applications. Wiley, New York (1998) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chellappa, R., Wilson, C., Sirohey, S.: Human and machine recognition of faces: a survey. Proc. IEEE 83(5), 704–740 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Cohen, I., Sebe, N., Cozman, F.G., Cirelo, M.C., Huang, T.: Learning Bayesian network classifiers for facial expression recognition using both labeled and unlabeled data. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2003) (2003) Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eickeler, S., Birlinghoven, S.: Face database retrieval using pseudo 2D hidden Markov models. In: Proceeding of IEEE Int. Conf. on Face and Gestures (FG 2002) (2002) Google Scholar
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Hong, P., Wen, Z., Huang, T.: IFace: a 3D synthetic talking face. Int. J. Image Graph. 1(1), 19–26 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Houghton, R.: Named faces: putting names to faces. IEEE Intell. Syst. 14(5), 45–50 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Konen, W., Schulze-Krüger, E.: ZN-face: a system for access control using automated face recognition. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pp. 18–23 (1995) Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kudhinsky, A., Pering, C., Creech, M.L., Freeze, D., Serra, B., Gvvizdka, J.: FotoFile: a consumer multimedia organization and retrieval system. In: Proceedings of CHI’99, pp. 496–503 (1999) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li, H., Roivainen, P., Forchheimer, R.: 3D motion estimation in model-based facial image coding. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15(6), 545–555 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lyons, M., Plante, A., Jehan, S., Inoue, S., Akamatsu, S.: Avatar creation using automatic face recognition. In: Proceedings, ACM Multimedia 98, pp. 427–434 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lyu, M.R., Yau, E., Sze, S.: A multilingual, multimodal digital video library system. In: ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, JCDL 2002, Proceedings, pp. 145–153 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ma, W.-Y., Zhang, H.: An indexing and browsing system for home video. In: Proc. of 10th European Signal Processing Conference (2000) Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Martinez, A.: Face image retrieval using HMMs. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Content-Based Access of Image and Video Libraries (1999) Google Scholar
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
    Navarrete, P., del Solar, J.: Interactive face retrieval using self-organizing maps. In: Proceedings, 2002 Int. Joint Conf. on Neural Networks: IJCNN2002 (2002) Google Scholar
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
    Phillips, P., Grother, P., Michaels, R., Blackburn, D., Tabassi, E., Bone, M.: Face recognition vendor test 2002: evaluation report.
  30. 30.
    Phillips, P., Scruggs, W., O’Tools, A., Lynn, P., Bowyer, K., Schott, C., Sharpe, M.: FRVT 2006 and ICE 2006 large-scale results.
  31. 31.
    Rowley, H., Baluja, S., Kanade, T.: Neural network-based face detection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 22–38 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rui, Y., Huang, T.S., Chang, S.-F.: Image retrieval: current techniques, promising directions and open issues. J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent. 10(4), 39–62 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
    Wactlar, H., Smith, T.K.M., Stevens, S.: Intelligence access to digital video: informedia project. Computer 29(5), 46–52 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wang, H., Chang, S.-F.: A highly efficient system for automatic face region detection in mpeg video sequences. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 7(4), 615–628 (1997). Special Issue on Multimedia Systems and Technologies MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wu, Y., Huang, T.: Nonstationary color tracking for vision-based human computer interaction. IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 13(4) (2002) Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Xiong, Z., Chen, Y., Wang, R., Huang, T.: Improved information maximization based face and facial feature detection from real-time video and application in a multi-modal person identification system. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI’2002), pp. 511–516 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhao, W., Chellappa, R., Rosenfelda, A., Phillips, J.: Face recognition: a literature survey. Technical Report, CS-TR4167R, University of Maryland (2000) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.United Technologies Research CenterEast HartfordUSA

Personalised recommendations