Advertisement

Dynamic Aspects of Face Processing in Humans

  • Heinrich H. Bülthoff
  • Douglas W. Cunningham
  • Christian Wallraven

Abstract

In this chapter, we will focus on the role of motion in identity and expression recognition in human, and its developmental and neurophysiological aspects. Based on results from literature, we make it clear that there is some form of characteristic facial information that is only available over time, and that it plays an important role in the recognition of identity, expression, speech, and gender; and that the addition of dynamic information improves the recognizability of expressions and identity, and can compensate for the loss of static information. Moreover, at least several different types of motion seem to exist, they play different roles, and a simple rigid/nonrigid dichotomy is neither sufficient nor appropriate to describe these motions. Additional research is necessary to determine what the dynamic features for face processing are.

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Facial Expression Video Sequence Face Processing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Max Planck Society and the WCU (World Class University) program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (R31-2008-000-10008-0). We are grateful to useful discussions with those who read earlier drafts of the manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, A.R.: Dissociable neural systems for recognizing emotions. Brain Cogn. 52, 61–69 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allison, T., Puce, A., McCarthy, G., et al.: Social perception from visual cues: role of the STS region. Trends Cogn. Sci. 4(7), 267–278 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ambadar, Z., Schooler, J.W., Cohn, J.: Deciphering the enigmatic face: The importance of facial dynamics in interpreting subtle facial expressions. Psychol. Sci. 16, 403–410 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anaki, D., Boyd, J., Moscovitch, M.: Temporal integration in face perception: Evidence of configural processing of temporally separated face parts. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 22, 1–19 (2007) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Averbach, E., Coriell, A.S.: Short-term memory in vision. Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 309–328 (1961) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Back, E., Ropar, D., Mitchell, P.: Do the eyes have it? Inferring mental states from animated faces in autism. Child Dev. 78(2), 397–411 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barton, J.J.S.: Disorders of face perception and recognition. Neurol. Clin. 21, 521–548 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bassili, J.: Facial motion in the perception of faces and of emotional expression. J. Exp. Psychol. 4, 373–379 (1978) Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bassili, J.: Emotion recognition: The role of facial motion and the relative importance of upper and lower areas of the face. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 37, 2049–2059 (1979) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bavelas, J.B., Black, A., Lemery, C.R., Mullett, J.: I show how you feel—motor mimicry as a communicative act. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 59, 322–329 (1986) Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bavelas, J.B., Chovil, N.: Visible acts of meaning—an integrated message model of language in face-to-face dialogue. J. Lang. Soc. Psychol. 19, 163–194 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bavelas, J.B., Coates, L., Johnson, T.: Listeners as co-narrators. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 79, 941–952 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Becker, M., Pashler, H.: Volatile visual representations: Failing to detect changes in recently processed information. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 9, 744–750 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berry, D.: What can a moving face tell us? J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 58, 1004–1014 (1990) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berry, D.: Child and adult sensitivity to gender information in patterns of facial motion. Ecol. Psychol. 3, 348–366 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bruce, V.: Recognising Faces. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1988) Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruce, V., Young, A.: Understanding face recognition. Br. J. Psychol. 77, 305–327 (1986) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bull, P.: State of the art: Nonverbal communication. The Psychologist 14, 644–647 (2001) Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bull, R.E., Connelly, G.: Body movement and emphasis in speech. J. Nonverbal Behav. 9, 169–187 (1986) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Calder, A.J., Young, A.W.: Understanding the recognition of facial identity and facial expression. Nat. Rev., Neurosci. 6, 641–651 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carrera-Levillain, P., Fernandez-Dols, J.: Neutral faces in context: Their emotional meaning and their function. J. Nonverbal Behav. 18, 281–299 (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cassell, J., Thorisson, K.R.: The power of a nod and a glance: Envelope vs. emotional feedback in animated conversational agents. Appl. Artif. Intell. 13, 519–538 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cassell, J., Bickmore, T., Cambell, L., Vilhjalmsson, H., Yan, H.: More than just a pretty face: conversational protocols and the affordances of embodiment. Knowl.-Based Syst. 14, 22–64 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Christie, F., Bruce, V.: The role of dynamic information in the recognition of unfamiliar faces. Mem. Cogn. 26, 780–790 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Condon, W.S., Ogston, W.D.: Sound film analysis of normal and pathological behaviour patterns. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 143, 338–347 (1966) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cunningham, D.W., Wallraven, C.: Temporal information for the recognition of conversational expressions. J. Vis. 9, 1–17 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cunningham, D.W., Breidt, M., Kleiner, M., Wallraven, C., Bülthoff, H.: The inaccuracy and insincerity of real faces. In: Proceedings of Visualization, Imaging, and Image Processing (2003) Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cunningham, D.W., Breidt, M., Kleiner, M., Wallraven, C., Bülthoff, H.H.: How believable are real faces?: Towards a perceptual basis for conversational animation. In: Computer Animation and Social Agents 2003, pp. 23–29 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cunningham, D.W., Kleiner, M., Wallraven, C., Bülthoff, H.H.: Manipulating video sequences to determine the components of conversational facial expressions. ACM Trans. Appl. Percept. 2(3), 251–269 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Darwin, C.: The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. John Murray, London (1872) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    DeCarlo, D., Revilla, C., Stone, M.: Making discourse visible: Coding and animating conversational facial displays. In: Proceedings of the Computer Animation 2002, pp. 11–16 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dohen, M., Loevenbruck, Cathiard, M.-A., Schwartz, J.-L.: Audiovisual perception of contrastive focus in French. In: Proceedings of the AVSP’03 Conference, pp. 245–250 (2003) Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Duchenne, B.: The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression or an Electro-Physiological Analysis of the Expression of the Emotions. Cambridge University Press, New York (1862/1990) Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Edwards, K.: The face of time: Temporal cues in facial expressions of emotion. Psychol. Sci. 9, 270–276 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ehrlich, S.M., Schiano, D.J., Scheridan, K.: Communicating facial affect: It’s not the realism, it’s the motion. In: Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 252–253. ACM Press, New York (2000) Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ekman, P., Friesen, W.: Facial Action Coding System. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto (1978) Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: Felt, false, and miserable smiles. J. Nonverbal Behav. 6, 238–252 (1982) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Elison, J.W., Massaro, D.W.: Featural evaluation, integration, and judgment of facial affect. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 23, 213–226 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Essa, I., Pentland, A.: A vision system for observing and extracting facial action parameters. In: CVPR94, pp. 76–83 (1994) Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Essa, I., Pentland, A.: Coding, analysis, interpretation, and recognition of facial expressions (1997) Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fernandez-Dols, J., Wallbott, H., Sanchez, F.: Emotion category accessibility and the decoding of emotion from facial expression and context. J. Nonverbal Behav. 15, 107–124 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fox, C., Iaria, G., Barton, J.: Defining the face processing network: Optimization of the functional localizer in fMRI. Hum. Brain Mapp. 30(5) (2009) Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Frijda, N.H., Philipszoon, E.: Dimensions of recognition of emotion. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 66, 45–51 (1963) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Frois-Wittmann, J.: The judgment of facial expression. J. Exp. Psychol. 13, 113–151 (1930) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gepner, B., Deruelle, C., Grynfeltt, S.: Motion and emotion: A novel approach to the study of face processing by young autistic children. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 31(1), 37–45 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gibson, J.J.: The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1979) Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Giese, M., Poggio, T.: Neural mechanisms for the recognition of biological movements. Nat. Rev., Neurosci. 4(3), 179–192 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hanawalt, N.: The role of the upper and lower parts of the face as the basis for judging facial expressions: II. in posed expressions and “candid camera” pictures. J. Gen. Psychol. 31, 23–36 (1944) Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Harwood, N., Hall, L., Shinkfield, A.: Recognition of facial emotional expressions from moving and static displays by individuals with mental retardation. Am. J. Ment. Retard. 104, 270–278 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Haxby, J.V., Gobbini, M.I., Furey, M., Ishai, A., Schouten, J., Pietrini, P.: Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex. Science 293, 2425–2430 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hill, H., Johnston, A.: Categorization and identity from the biological motion of faces. Curr. Biol. 11, 880–885 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hill, H., Johnston, A.: Categorizing sex and identity from the biological motion of faces. Curr. Biol. 11, 880–885 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hill, H., Troje, N.F., Johnston, A.: Range- and domain-specific exaggeration of facial speech. J. Vis. 5, 793–807 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Humphreys, G., Donnelly, N., Riddoch, M.: Expression is computed separately from facial identity, and is computed separately for moving and static faces: Neuropsychological evidence. Neuropsychologia 31, 173–181 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hunnius, S., Geuze, R.: Gaze shifting in infancy: A longitudinal study using dynamic faces and abstract stimuli. Infant Behav. Dev. 27(3), 397–416 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Isaacs, E., Tang, J.: What video can and can’t do for collaboration: a case study. In: ACM Multimedia ’93, pp. 496–503. ACM, New York (1993) Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Izard, C.E.: The maximally discriminative facial movement coding system (max). Available from Instructional Resource Center, University of Delaware. Newark, DE (1979) Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Izard, C.E., Dougherty, L.M., Hembree, E.A.: A system for identifying affect expressions by holistic judgments (1983) Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Johansson, G.: Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis. Percept. Psychophys. 14, 201–211 (1973) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kaetsyri, J., Klucharev, V., Frydrych, M., Sams, M.: Identification of synthetic and natural emotional facial expressions. In: International Conference on Audio-Visual Speech Processing (AVSP 2003), pp. 239–243 (2003) Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kahneman, D.: Method, findings, and theory in studies of visual masking. Psychol. Bull. 70, 404–425 (1968) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kamachi, M., Bruce, V., Mukaida, S., Gyoba, J., Yoshikawa, S., Akamatsu, S.: Dynamic properties influence the perception of facial expressions. Perception 30, 875–887 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kilts, C., Egan, G., Gideon, D., Ely, T., Hoffman, J.: Dissociable neural pathways are involved in the recognition of emotion in static and dynamic facial expressions. NeuroImage 18(1), 156–168 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Knappmeyer, B., Thornton, I., Bülthoff, H.: The use of facial motion and facial form during the processing of identity. Vis. Res. 43(18), 1921–1936 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Knight, B., Johnson, A.: The role of movement in face recognition. Vis. Cogn. 4, 265–273 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    LaBar, K., Crupain, M.J., Voyvodic, J.T., McCarthy, G.: Dynamic perception of facial affect and identity in the human brain. Cereb. Cortex 13, 1023–1033 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lander, K., Bruce, V.: Recognizing famous faces: exploring the benefits of facial motion. Ecol. Psychol. 12, 259–272 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lander, K., Chuang, L.: Why are moving faces easier to recognize? Vis. Cogn. 12, 429–442 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lander, K., Christie, F., Bruce, V.: The role of movement in the recognition of famous faces. Mem. Cogn. 27, 974–985 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lander, K., Bruce, V., Hill, H.: Evaluating the effectiveness of pixelation and blurring on masking the identity of familiar faces. Appl. Cogn. Psychol. 15, 101–116 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lander, K., Chuang, L., Wickam, L.: Recognizing face identity from natural and morphed smiles. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 59, 801–808 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Leventhal, H., Sharp, E.: Facial expression as indicators of distress. In: Tomkins, S.S., Izard, C.E. (eds.) Affect, Cognition and Personality: Empirical Studies, pp. 296–318. Springer, New York (1965) Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mehrabian, A., Ferris, S.: Inference of attitudes from nonverbal communication in two channels. J. Consult. Psychol. 31, 248–252 (1967) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Montirosso, R., Peverelli, M., Frigerio, E., Crespi, M., Borgatti, R.: The development of dynamic facial expression recognition at different intensities in 4- to 18-year-olds. Soc. Dev. 19(1), 71–92 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mori, M.: Bukimi no tani. Energy 7, 33–35 (1970) [The uncanny valley, (K.F. Macdorman and T. Minato, transl.)] Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Motley, M.T.: Facial affect and verbal context in conversation—facial expression as interjection. Hum. Commun. Res. 20, 3–40 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Munhall, K.G., Jones, J.A., Callan, D.E., Kuratate, T., Vatikiotis-Bateson, E.: Visual prosody and speech intelligibility: head movement improves auditory speech perception. Psychol. Sci. 15, 133–137 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Numenmaa, T.: The language of the face. In: Jyvaskyla Studies in Education, Psychology, and Social Research, Jyvaskyla, Finland (1964). Jyvaskylan, Yliopistoydystys Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nusseck, M., Cunningham, D.W., Ruiter, J.P.D., Wallraven, C.: Perception of emphasis intensity in audio-visual speech. Speech Commun. 11 under review Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nusseck, M., Cunningham, D.W., Wallraven, C., Bülthoff, H.H.: The contribution of different facial regions to the recognition of conversational expressions. J. Vis. 8(8:1), 1–23 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    O’Toole, A., Roak, D.: Memory for moving faces: The interplay of two recognition systems. In: Giese, M., Curio, C., Bülthoff, H. (eds.) Dynamic Faces: Insights from Experiments and Computation. MIT Press, Cambridge (2009) Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Otsuka, Y., Konishi, Y., Kanazawa, S., Yamaguchi, M., Abdi, H., O’Toole, A.: Recognition of moving and static faces by young infants. Child Dev. 80(4), 1259–1271 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pike, G., Kemp, R., Towell, N., Phillips, K.: Recognizing moving faces: The relative contribution of motion and perspective view information. Vis. Cogn. 4, 409–437 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pilz, K.S., Thornton, I.M., Bülthoff, H.H.: A search advantage for faces learned in motion. Exp. Brain Res. 171(4), 436–447 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Plutchik, R.: The Emotions: Facts, Theories, and a New Model. Random House, New York (1962) Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Poggi, I., Pelachaud, C.: Perfomative facial expressions in animated faces. In: Cassell, J., Sullivan, J., Prevost, S., Churchill, E. (eds.) Embodied Conversational Agents, pp. 115–188. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000) Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rensink, R.A., O’Regan, J.K., Clark, J.J.: To see or not to see: the need for attention to perceive changes in scenes. Psychol. Sci. 8, 368–373 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Roark, D.A., O’Toole, A.J., Abdi, H., Barrett, S.E.: Learning the moves: The effect of familiarity and facial motion on person recognition across large changes in viewing format. Perception 35, 761–773 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sayette, M.A., Cohn, J.F., Wertz, J.M., Perrott, M.A., Parrott, D.J.,: A psychometric evaluation of the facial action coding system for assessing spontaneous expression. J. Nonverbal Behav. 25, 167–186 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schultz, J., Pilz, K.: Natural facial motion enhances cortical responses to faces. Exp. Brain Res. 194(3), 465–475 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schwaninger, A., Wallraven, C., Cunningham, D.W., Chiller-Glaus, S.D.: Processing of facial identity and expression: A psychophysical, physiological and computational perspective. Progress in Brain Research, 325–348 (2006) Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schwarzer, G., Leder, H.: The Development of Face Processing. Hogrefe & Huber, Cambridge (2003) Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Simons, D.J., Levin, D.T.: Failure to detect changes to people during a real-world interaction. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 5, 644–649 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Skelton, F., Hay, D.: Do children utilize motion when recognizing faces? Vis. Cogn. 16(4), 419–429 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Soken, N., Pick, A.: Intermodal perception of happy and angry expressive behaviors by seven-month-old infants. Child Dev. 63(4), 787–795 (1992) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Spencer, J., O’Brien, J., Johnston, A., Hill, H.: Infants’ discrimination of faces by using biological motion cues. Perception 35(1), 79 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stigler, R.: Chronophotische Studien ber den Umgebungskontrast (Effects of exposure duration and luminance on the contrast of the surround). Pflügers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 134, 365–435 (1910) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tardif, C., Laine, F., Rodriguez, M., Gepner, B.: Slowing down presentation of facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and induces facial–vocal imitation in children with autism. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 37(8), 1469–1484 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Thornton, I., Kourtzi, Z.: A matching advantage for dynamic human faces. Perception 31, 113–132 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Trautmann, S., Fehr, T., Herrmann, M.: Emotions in motion: Dynamic compared to static facial expressions of disgust and happiness reveal more widespread emotion-specific activations. Brain Res. 1284, 100–115 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tronick, E., Als, H., Brazelton, T.B.: Monadic phases: A structural descriptive analysis of infant-mother face-to-face interaction. Merrill-Palmer Q. Behav. Dev. 26, 3–24 (1980) Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Vertegaal, R.: Conversational awareness in multiparty vmc. In: Extended Abstracts of CHI’97, pp. 496–503. ACM, Atlanta (1997) Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Walker-Andrews, A.: Infants’ perception of expressive behaviors: Differentiation of multimodal information. Psychol. Bull. 121, 437–456 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wallis, G., Bülthoff, H.H.: Effects of temporal association on recognition memory. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4800–4804 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wallraven, C., Bülthoff, H.H., Fischer, J., Cunningham, D.W., Bartz, D.: Evaluation of real-world and computer-generated stylized facial expressions. ACM Trans. Appl. Percept. 4, 1–24 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wallraven, C., Breidt, M., Cunningham, D.W., Bülthoff, H.H.: Evaluating the perceptual realism of animated facial expressions. ACM Trans. Appl. Percept. 4, 1–20 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wehrle, T., Kaiser, S., Schmidt, S., Schere, K.R.: Studying the dynamics of emotional expressions using synthesized facial muscle movements. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 78, 105–119 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Weyers, P., Mühlberger, A., Hefele, C., Pauli, P.: Electromyographic responses to static and dynamic avatar emotional facial expressions. Psychophysiology 43, 450–453 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    White, M.: Parts and wholes in expression recognition. Cogn. Emot. 14, 39–60 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Williams, M., Breitmeyer, B., Lovegrove, W., Gutierrez, L.: Metacontrast with masks varying in spatial frequency and wavelength. Vis. Res. 31, 2017–2023 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Yngve, V.H.: On getting a word in edgewise. In: Papers from the Sixth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, pp. 567–578. Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago (1970) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinrich H. Bülthoff
    • 1
    • 2
  • Douglas W. Cunningham
    • 1
    • 3
  • Christian Wallraven
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for Biological CyberneticsTübingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Brain and Cognitive EngineeringKorea UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.Brandenburg Technical UniversityCottbusGermany

Personalised recommendations