Advertisement

Overview, Structure and Function of the Nephron

  • Megan Rashid
  • George J. Schwartz
Chapter

Abstract

The kidneys are responsible for the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance, the excretion of waste products such as urea and creatinine, and the overall maintenance of the extracellular environment. In addition, a large volume of fluid is filtered through the kidneys daily. In order to prevent massive losses in the urine, the kidneys must recover the bulk of filtered solutes, including amino acids, glucose, calcium, potassium and phosphorus. Finally, the kidneys secrete multiple hormones, including renin, angiotensin II, calcitriol (1.25 Vitamin D) and erythropoietin.

Keywords

Glomerular Filtration Rate Proximal Tubule Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Renal Tubular Acidosis Renal Plasma Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Readings

  1. Benfield M, Bunchman T. Chapter 65: Management of acute renal failure. In: Avner E, Harmon W, Niaudet P, editors. Pediatric nephrology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2004. p. 1253–1266.Google Scholar
  2. Berl T, Verbalis J. Chapter 19: Pathophysiology of water metabolism. In: Brenner B, editor. Brenner & Rector’s The kidney. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004. p. 857–920.Google Scholar
  3. Brenner B, Levine SA, Rector FC. Chapter 8: Glomerular ultrafiltration. In: Brenner B, editor. Brenner and Rector’s the kidney. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004a. p. 353–412.Google Scholar
  4. Brenner B, Levine SA, Rector FC. Chapter 7: The renal circulations. In: Brenner B, editor. Brenner & Rector’s The kidney. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004b. p. 309–53.Google Scholar
  5. Cogan MG. Fluid & electrolytes: physiology & pathophysiology. Norwalk: Appleton & Lange; 1991. p. 179.Google Scholar
  6. De Vriese AS. Prevention and treatment of acute renal failure in sepsis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14(3):792–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dluhy RG, Lawrence JE, Williams GH. Chapter 15 – Endocrine hypertension. In: Larsen PR, editor. Williams textbook of endocrinology. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003. p. 552–86.Google Scholar
  8. Dufour DR. Chapter 9 – Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes, acid-base balance, and blood gases. In: Hanry JB, editor. Clinical diagnosis and management by laboratory methods. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2001. p. 159–79.Google Scholar
  9. Furth S, Levin A, Schwartz G. Normal kidney function and development and choice of laboratory studies in children. In: Hogg RJ, editor. Kidney disorders in children and adolescents. A practical handbook. UK (Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon): Taylor & Francis; 2006. p. 1–14.Google Scholar
  10. Goldfarb D, JV Nally J, Schreiber M. Chapter 8: Etiology, pathogenesis and management of renal failure. In: Walsh PC, editor. Campbell’s urology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2002. p. 272–306.Google Scholar
  11. Han BK, Babcock DS. Sonographic measurements and appearance of normal kidneys in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1985;145 (3):611–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Herrin J. Chapter 39: Renal tubular acidosis. In: Avner E, Harmon W, Niaudet P, editors. Pediatric nephrology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2004. p. 757–76.Google Scholar
  13. The Harriet lane handbook: a manual for pediatric house officers. Custer JW, Rau RE, Editors. 18th ed. Mosby: Elsevier; 2009.Google Scholar
  14. Hristova E, Henry J. Chapter 10 – Metabolic intermediates, inorganic ions and biochemical marker s of bone metabolism. In: Hanry JB, editor. Clinical diagnosis and management by laboratory methods. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2001. p. 180–210.Google Scholar
  15. Kanwar YS. Biophysiology of glomerular filtration and proteinuria. Lab Invest. 1984;51:7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kaplan BS, Meyers KEC, editors. Chapter 4: Pediatric nephrology and urology. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; 2004.Google Scholar
  17. Kone BC. Chapter 5: The metabolic basis of solute transport. In: Brenner B, editor. Brenner & Rector’s The kidney. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004. p. 231–60.Google Scholar
  18. Larsen W. Development of the urogenital system. In: Human embryology. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1993. p. 235–79.Google Scholar
  19. López JA, Thiagarajan P. Chapter 135 – Acquired disorders of platelet function. In: Hoffman R, editor. Hematology: basic principles and practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2005. p. 2347–69.Google Scholar
  20. Madsen KM, Tischer CC. Chapter 1 - Anatomy of the kidney. In: Brenner and Rector’s the kidney. 7th ed. Saunders: Elsevier; 2004.Google Scholar
  21. Piepsz A, Tondeur M,Ham H. Europenan Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Moleculer Imaging 33(12):1477–82, 2006 Dec.Google Scholar
  22. Robertson J, Shilkofski N. Chapter 25: Blood chemistries and body fluids. In: Robertson J, Shilkofski N, editors. The Harriet Lane handbook: a manual for pediatric house officers. 17th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2005. p. 661–72.Google Scholar
  23. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 3: Proximal tubule. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001a. p. 71–111.Google Scholar
  24. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 11: Regulation of acid base. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001b. p. 325–71.Google Scholar
  25. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 23: Hypoosmolal states-hyponatremia. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001c. p. 696–745.Google Scholar
  26. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 2: Renal circulation and glomerular filtration rate. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001d. p. 63–70.Google Scholar
  27. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 9: Regulation of plasma osmolality. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001e. p. 285–98.Google Scholar
  28. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 8: Regulation of effective circulating volume. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001f. p. 258–84.Google Scholar
  29. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 6: Effects of hormones on renal function. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001g. p. 163–238.Google Scholar
  30. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 12: Potassium homeostasis. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001h. p. 372–402.Google Scholar
  31. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 15: Clinical use of diuretics. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001i. p. 448–77.Google Scholar
  32. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 4: Loop of Henle and the countercurrent mechanism. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001j. p. 112–42.Google Scholar
  33. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 10: Acid-base physiology. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001k. p. 299–324.Google Scholar
  34. Rose B, Post T. Chapter 19: Metabolic acidosis. In: Clinical physiology of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001l. p. 578–646.Google Scholar
  35. Rose B, Rennke H. Chapter 2: Regulation of salt and water balance. In: Renal pathophysiology – the essentials. New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1994a. p. 29–66.Google Scholar
  36. Rose B, Rennke H. Chapter 5: Acid-base physiology and metabolic alkalosis. In: Renal pathophysiology – the essentials. New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1994b. p. 123–51.Google Scholar
  37. Rose B, Rennke H. Chapter 4: Edematous states and the use of diuretics. In: Renal pathophysiology – the essentials. New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1994c. p. 97–122.Google Scholar
  38. Satlin L, Woda C, Schwartz G. Chapter 18: Development of function in the metanephric kidney by Satlin. In: The kidney. San Diego: Academic Press; 2003. p. 267–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schwaderer AL, Schwartz GJ. Back to basics: acidosis and alkalosis. Pediatr Rev. 2004;25(10):350–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schwartz GJ, Haycock GB, Spitzer A. Plasma creatinine and urea concentration in children: normal values for age and sex. J Pediatr. 1976;88(5):828–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schwartz GJ, Feld LG, Langford DJ. A simple estimate of glomerular filtration rate in full-term infants during the first year of life. J Pediatr. 1984;104(6):849–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schwartz GJ, Brion LP, Spitzer A. The use of plasma creatinine concentration for estimating glomerular filtration rate in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1987;34(3): 71–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Schwartz GJ, Muñoz A, Schneider MF, Mak RH, Kaskel F, Warady BA, Furth SL. New equations to estimate GFR in children with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:629–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Silkensen JR, Kasiske BL. Chapter 24 – Laboratory assessment of kidney disease: clearance, urinalysis, and kidney biopsy. In: Brenner B, editor. Brenner & Rector’s The kidney. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004. p. 1107–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric Nephrology, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Golisano Children’s HospitalRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations