Regional Circulations



The major role of the circulatory system is to supply vital organs and all the tissue beds with oxygen and nutrients. The uninterrupted flow of oxygen and nutrients is necessary to sustain viability and guarantee normal function of the many specialized tissues. Since energy is needed for any function in the human body and it can be provided only by nutrients and oxygen, it is only logical that through the billions of years of evolution all the tissues have developed regulatory mechanisms that couple their function and energy consumption with the circulatory system.


Blood Flow Nitric Oxide Renal Blood Flow Coronary Blood Flow Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aaslid R, Lindegaard KF, Sorteberg W, Nornes H. Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in humans. Stroke. 1989;20:45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belardinelli L, Linden J, Berne RM. The cardiac effects of adenosine. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1989;32:73–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng HF, Harris RC. Cyclooxygenases, the kidney, and hypertension. Hypertension. 2004;43:525–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chilian WM. Coronary microcirculation in health and disease. Summary of an NHLBI workshop. Circulation. 1997;95:522–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cowley Jr AW, Mori T, Mattson D, Zou A-P. Role of renal NO production in the regulation of medullary blood flow. Am J Physiol. 2003;284:R1355–69.Google Scholar
  6. Dickhout JG, Mori T, Cowley Jr AW. Tubulovascular nitric oxide crosstalk: buffering of angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction. Circ Res. 2002;91:487–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Duffy SJ, Castle SF, Harper RW, Meredith IT. Contribution of vasodilator prostanoids and nitric oxide to resting flow, metabolic vasodilation, and flow-mediated dilation in human coronary circulation. Circulation. 1999;100:1951–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Faraci FM, Brian JE. Nitric oxide and the cerebral circulation. Stroke. 1994;25:692–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Faraci FM, Heistad DD. Regulation of the cerebral circulation: role of endothelium and potassium channels. Physiol Rev. 1998;78:53–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Frank M, Faraci F, Heistad DD. Regulation of the cerebral circulation: role of endothelium and potassium channels. Physiol Rev. 1998;78:53–97.Google Scholar
  11. Girouard H, Iadecola C. Neurovascular coupling in the normal brain and in hypertension, stroke, and Alzheimer disease. J Appl Physiol. 2006;100:328–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gould KL. Coronary arterty stenosis. New York: Elsevier; 1991. p. 8.Google Scholar
  13. Hinshaw LB. Sepsis/septic shock: participation of the microcirculation: an abbreviated review. Crit Care Med. 1996;24:1072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hong MF, Dorian P. Update on advanced life support and resuscitation techniques. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2005;20:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Humbert M, Morrell NW, Archer SL, Stenmark KR, MacLean MR, Lang IM, et al. Cellular and molecular pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(12 Supple S):13S–24. Review.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Iadecola C. Neurovascular regulation in the normal brain and in Alzheimer’s disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2004;5:347–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. John M. Johnson, Duane W. Proppe. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Heat Stress. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 14: Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology: 215–243. First published in print 1996. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp040111.Google Scholar
  18. Kazmaier S, Weyland A, Buhre W, et al. Effects of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis on myocardial blood flow and metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease. Anesthesiology. 1998;89:831–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kellogg Jr DL. In vivo mechanisms of cutaneous vasodilation and vasoconstriction in humans during thermoregulatory challenges. J Appl Physiol. 2005;100:1709–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Michelakis ED, Thebaud B, Weir KE, Archer SL. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: redox regulation of O2-sensitive K+ channels by a mitochondrial O2-sensor in resistance artery smooth muscle cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004;37(6):1119–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Morita K, Mori H, Tsujioka K, et al. Adrenergic vasoconstriction reduces systolic retrograde coronary blood flow. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 1997;273:H2746–55.Google Scholar
  22. Nieuwenhuijzen GA, Deitch EA, Goris RJ. Infection, the gut and the development of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Eur J Surg. 1996;162:259–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Pallone TL, Robertson CR, Jamison RL. Renal medullary microcirculation. Physiol Rev. 1990;70:885–920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Pallone TL, Zhang Z, Rhinehart K. Physiology of the renal medullary microcirculation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;284:F253–66. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00304.2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Peters AP, Webster HD. The fine structure of the nervous system. New York: Oxford University Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  26. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Flower RJ (2007). “Chapter 11: Noradrenergic transmission”. Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology (6th ed.). Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. pp. 169–170. ISBN 0–443-06911–5.Google Scholar
  27. Stenmark KR, Mecham RP. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Annu Rev Physiol. 1997;59:89–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Voelkel NF, Tuder RM. Cellular and molecular of vascular smooth muscle cells in pulmonary hypertension. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 1997;10:231–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Weir EK, Lopez-Barneo J, Buckler KJ, Archer SL. Acute oxygen-sensing mechanisms. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2042–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yada T, Richmond KN, Van Bibber R, et al. Role of adenosine in local metabolic coronary vasodilation. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:H1425–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiovascular Medicine, Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium, Department of MedicineUniversity of Minnesota Medical School, University of Minnesota Medical CenterMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesia and Critical CarePerelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania, The Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations