Post-operative Cardiac Care

  • Surender Rajasekaran
  • John C. Ring


Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects a large, ever-growing population of infants, children, adolescents and adults. The worldwide incidence of CHD is 8 per 1,000 live births and varies little from country to country where surveillance data is adequate. In the United States, the incidence is similar with 9 defects per 1,000 live births or more than 36,000 new patients with CHD per year. Cardiac defects are the most common congenital malformation, occurring in 0.8% of all live births; the incidence is much higher, approximating 5%, if lesions such as bicuspid, non-obstructive aortic valves (1.4%) and small, muscular ventricular septal defects are included (5%). The disease burden for CHD is substantial. Cardiac defects are the most lethal of all birth defects, accounting for 29% of the mortality observed during infancy. Moreover, the care for CHD is costly, estimated at $2.6 billion per year. Lesions requiring surgical intervention in infancy are particularly costly, often exceeding coverage limits on health insurance policies: hypoplastic left heart syndrome ($199,597); persistent truncus arteriosus ($192,781); and coarctation of the aorta and d-transposition of the great arteries (>$150,000).


Congenital Heart Disease Inferior Vena Cava Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Ventricular Septal Defect Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surender Rajasekaran
    • 1
  • John C. Ring
    • 2
  1. 1.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of PediatricsMichigan State University, Helen DeVos Children’s HospitalGrand RapidsUSA
  2. 2.Pediatric Cardiology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Geisinger Medical CenterTemple University School of Medicine, Janet Weis Children’s HospitalDanvilleUSA

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