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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

  • Frank A. Maffei
  • Neal J. Thomas
Chapter

Abstract

Clinicians have long known the severe pulmonary complications that can accompany life-threatening illness or injury. In 1967, Ashbaugh and colleagues described what has now become known as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Their initial description of the syndrome in civilian patients was further appreciated in victims of nonthoracic trauma during the Vietnam War. ARDS has been known by other terms including: Da Nang lung, shock lung, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and wet lung. ARDS is well described in pediatric patients and therefore “acute respiratory distress syndrome” should be used in place of “adult respiratory distress syndrome”. In 1994, a European-American Consensus Conference formalized a working definition for both acute lung injury and the acute ­respiratory distress syndrome (Table 24-1). While these definitions are still broadly utilized, many in pediatrics feel that oxygenation index [(mean airway pressure X Fi02) / PaO2] is a more accurate marker of true oxygenation defect.

Keywords

Lung Injury Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Functional Residual Capacity Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patient Conventional Mechanical Ventilation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank A. Maffei
    • 1
  • Neal J. Thomas
    • 2
  1. 1.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Geisinger Medical CenterTemple University School of Medicine, Janet Weis Children’s HospitalDanvilleUSA
  2. 2.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of PediatricsPenn State College of Medicine, Penn State Hershey Children’s HospitalHersheyUSA

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