• Gretchen L. Brummel
  • Steven E. Lucking


Pharmacology is the study of exogenous chemicals including their actions on and movement throughout the body. As a science, it encompasses both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetics relates to the movement of chemical entities throughout the body. By understanding a medications pharmacokinetics, one understands what the body does to the drug. On the other hand pharmacodynamics is the science of what the drug does to the body or an infecting microorganism. Pharmacodynamics relates to the action of a drug in the body over a period of time. This chapter will also cover pharmaceutics, the science of pharmaceutical systems that focuses on drug preparations and dosage forms.


Benzyl Alcohol Plasma Protein Binding Total Body Water Grapefruit Juice Order Elimination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Readings

  1. Carr L, Tucker A, Fernandez-Botran R. In vivo administration of L-dopa or dopamine decreases at the number of splenic IFNγ-producing cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;137:87–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Debaveye YA, Van den Berghe GH. Is there’s still a place for dopamine in the modern intensive care unit? Anesth Analg. 2004;98:461–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Deree J, Martins JO, Melbostad H, et al. Insights into the regulation of TNFα production in human mononuclear cells: the effects of non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibition. Clinics. 2008;63:321–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Devins SS, Miller A, Herndon BL, et al. Effects of dopamine on T-lymphocyte proliferative responses and serum prolactin concentrations in a critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1992;12:1644–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guerin JP, Levraut J, Samat-Long C, et al. Effects of dopamine and norepinephrine on systemic and hepatosplanchnic hemodynamics, oxygen exchange, and energy balance in vasoplegic septic patients. Shock. 2005;1:18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hansen P, Horn J. The top 100 drug interactions: a guide to patient management. Freeland: H&H Publications; 2008.Google Scholar
  7. Haque K, Mohan P. Pentoxifylline for neonatal sepsis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;4:CD004205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kohka H, Nishibori M, Iwagaki H, et al. Histamine is a potent inducer of IL-18 and IFN-γ in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Immunol. 2000;164:6640–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Landry Y, Gies JP. Drugs and their molecular targets: an updated overview. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008;22:1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Leucuta SE, Vlase L. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic drug interactions. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2006;1:5–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Levitt DG. PKQuest_Java: free, interactive physiologically based pharmacokinetic software package and tutorial. BMC Res Notes. 2009;2:158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Muir KW. Glutamate-based therapeutic approaches: clinical trials with NMDA antagonists. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2006;6:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nielsen HJ, Mynster T, Jensen S, et al. Effect of ranitidine on soluble interleukin-2 receptors and CD 8 molecule is in surgical patients. Br J Surg. 1994;81:1747–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Taketomo CK, Hodding JH, Kraus DM, Taketomo CK, Hodding JH, Kraus DM, editors. Lexicomp’s pediatric dosage handbook. 15th ed. Hudson: Lexicomp, Inc; 2008.Google Scholar
  15. Tetelbaum M, Finklestein Y, Nava-Ocampo A, et al. Understanding drugs in children: pharmacokinetic maturation. Pediatr Rev. 2005;26:9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacyPenn State College of Medicine, Penn State Hershey Children’s HospitalHersheyUSA
  2. 2.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of PediatricsPenn State College of Medicine, Penn State Hershey Children’s HospitalHersheyUSA

Personalised recommendations