Non-conventional Mechanical Ventilation
Improvement in pediatric critical care has resulted in a population of patients surviving illnesses that previously were fatal. Mechanical ventilation is one of the major supportive therapeutic modalities used in pediatric critical care that has resulted in these improved outcomes. This enhanced survival has led to the development of PICU survivors with residual lung disease, in part, secondary to the techniques used to ventilate them. The desire to improve ventilator-patient synchrony, enhance patient comfort, ease weaning from support, minimize pulmonary trauma and to further improve patient outcomes has resulted in the introduction of many non-conventional modes of ventilation. Additionally, the desire to achieve these stated goals has also sparked interest in the use of less invasive forms of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately, many of these modes of support were introduced without sufficient data regarding their use for respiratory failure. Few randomized, controlled studies have assessed these less conventional modes of ventilation. A clear understanding of these non-conventional forms of ventilation including their potential benefits and limitations is essential to their appropriate implementation in the pediatric critical care setting.
KeywordsContinuous Positive Airway Pressure Acute Respiratory Failure Peak Inspiratory Pressure Noninvasive Ventilation Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation
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