Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Helicopter Rotor


Chapter 5 illustrates the genetic fuzzy system for health monitoring of a composite helicopter rotor in forward flight. The rotor is the most important component of the helicopter, and its health is critical for helicopter performance and control. Progressive damage accumulation is considered in the composite material. This damage model considers matrix cracking as the first damage type, followed by debonding/delamination, and finally fiber breakage. The damaged helicopter rotor is modeled using a finite element simulation which solves the rotor blade equations and vehicle trim equations. This aeroelastic simulation provides the blade response, blade and hub loads, strains, etc., for a damaged composite helicopter rotor in forward flight. The genetic fuzzy system is developed and tested for this helicopter rotor health monitoring problem. Different combinations of measurements are considered, and their advantages and shortcomings are evaluated. Finally, a life prediction approach is developed based on phenomenological damage growth models, and the genetic fuzzy system is illustrated for damage detection as well as life prediction for a helicopter rotor.


Rotor Blade Structural Health Monitoring Crack Density Matrix Crack Damage Mode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Hodges, D.H., Dowell, E.H.: Nonlinear equations of motion for the elastic bending and torsion of twisted nonuniform blades. NASA, TND-7818 (1974) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leishman, J.G.: Modeling of subsonic unsteady aerodynamics for rotary wing applications. J. Am. Helicopter Soc. 35(1), 28–35 (1990) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chopra, I., Sivaneri, N.T.: Aeroelastic stability of rotor blades using finite element analysis. NASA CR 166389 (1982) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bir, G., Chopra, I.: University of Maryland Advanced Rotorcraft Code (UMARC) theory manual. UM-AERO Report 92-02 (1992) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ganguli, R.: Optimum design of a low vibration helicopter rotor using aeroelastic analysis and response surface methods. J. Sound Vib. 258(2), 327–344 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johnson, W.: Helicopter Theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1980) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lim, J.W., Chopra, I.: Aeroelastic optimization of a helicopter rotor using an efficient sensitivity analysis. J. Aircr. 28(1), 29–37 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chandra, R., Chopra, I.: Structural response of composite beams and blades with elastic couplings. Compos. Eng. 2(5–6), 347–374 (1992) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Adolfsson, E., Gudmundson, P.: Thermoelastic properties in combined bending and extension of thin composite laminates with transverse matrix cracks. Int. J. Solids Struct. 34(16), 2035–2060 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gudmundson, P., Zang, W.: An analytic model for thermoelastic properties of composite laminates containing transverse matrix cracks. Int. J. Solids Struct. 30(23), 3211–3231 (1993) MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shahid, I., Chang, F.K.: An accumulative damage model for tensile and shear failures of laminated composite plates. J. Compos. Mater. 29(7), 926–981 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mao, H., Mahadevan, S.: Fatigue damage modelling of composite materials. Compos. Struct. 58(4), 405–410 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pawar, P.M., Ganguli, R.: Modeling multi-layer matrix cracking in thin walled composite helicopter rotor blades. J. Am. Helicopter Soc. 50(3), 354–366 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pawar, P.M., Ganguli, R.: Modeling progressive damage accumulation in thin walled composite beams for rotor blade applications. Compos. Sci. Technol. 66(13), 2337–2349 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pawar, P.M., Ganguli, R.: On the effect of progressive damage on composite helicopter rotor system behavior. Compos. Struct. 78, 410–423 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pawar, P.M., Ganguli, R.: Helicopter rotor health monitoring—a review. Journal of Aerospace Engineering 221(5), 631–647 (2007). Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of EngineeringShri Vithal Education and Research InstitutePandharpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Aerospace EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations