• Fernando Pacheco Torgal
  • Said Jalali


Worldwide energy consumption is the main cause for the majority of carbon dioxide emissions. This chapter analyzes the embodied energy and how thermal energy efficiency increases its importance. Considerations about conventional thermal insulation materials, insulation materials made from natural materials and high performance insulation materials are made. This chapter also describes phase change materials (PCMs), and their importance to reduce peak room temperatures and energy demand.


Operational Energy Phase Change Material Carbon Dioxide Emission Hemp Fibre Thermal Insulation Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited  2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.C-TAC Research UnitUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal

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