Advertisement

Stomas

  • Mark Cheetham
Chapter

Abstract

The earliest stomas were almost certainly the result of battlefield trauma leading to a colocutaneous fistula. It was only late in the eighteenth century that surgeons attempted to create a stoma deliberately. Stomas were used only to palliate an obstructing cancer of the sigmoid or rectum. While this was effective in relieving the obstruction, the lack of useful stoma appliances meant that quality of life for these patients was often poor. It was not until comparatively late in the twentieth century that advances in surgical technique and stoma appliances improved the outlook for patients with stomas.

Keywords

Loop Ileostomy Parastomal Hernia Restorative Proctocolectomy Posterior Rectus Sheath Stoma Care 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Bass EM, Del Pino A, Tan A, et al. Does preoperative stoma marking and education by the enterostomal therapist affect outcome? Dis Colon Rectum. 1997;40:440–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chaudhri S, Brown L, Hassan I, Horgan AF. Preoperative intensive, community-based vs. traditional stoma education: a randomized, controlled trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:504–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hall C, Myers C, Phillips RK. The 554 ileostomy. Br J Surg. 1995;82:1385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Courtney ED, Callaghan CJ, Ilett H, et al. The double-spouted loop ileostomy. Colorectal Dis. 2009;11:215–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stephenson BM, Myers C, Phillips RK. Minimally raised end colostomy. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1995;10:232–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Speirs M, Leung E, Hughes D, et al. Ileostomy rod–is it a bridge too far? Colorectal Dis. 2006;8:484–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Montedori A, Cirocchi R, Farinella E, et al. Covering ileo- or colostomy in anterior resection for rectal carcinoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(5):CD006878.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Peeters KC, Tollenaar RA, Marijnen CA, et al. Risk factors for anastomotic failure after total mesorectal excision of rectal cancer. Br J Surg. 2005;92:211–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guenaga KF, Lustosa SA, Saad SS, Saonato H, Matos D. Ileostomy or colostomy for temporary decompression of colorectal anastomosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(1):CD004647.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Parks AG, Nicholls J. Proctocolectomy without ileostomy for ulcerative colitis. Br Med J. 1978;2:85–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Launer DP, Sackier PM. Pouch-anal anastomosis without diverting ileostomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1991;34:993–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Remzi FH, Fazio VW, Gorgun F, et al. The outcome after restorative proctocolectomy with or without defunctioning ileostomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49:470–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Joyce MR, Fazio VW, Hull TT, et al. In a select group of patients meeting strict clinical criteria and undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, the omission of a diverting ileostomy offers cost savings to the hospital. Dis Colon Rectum. 2010;53:905–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grobler SP, Hosie KB, Keighley MR. Randomized trial of loop ileostomy in restorative proctocolectomy. Br J Surg. 1992;79:903–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    David GG, Slavin JP, Willmott S, Corless DJ, Khan AU. Loop ileostomy following anterior resection: is it really temporary? Colorectal Dis. 2010;12:428–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hull TL, Kobe I, Fazio VW. Comparison of handsewn with stapled loop ileostomy closures. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:1086–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leung TT, MacLean AR, Buie WD, Dixon E. Comparison of stapled versus handsewn loop ileostomy closure: a meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12:939–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shelygin YA, Chernyshov SV, Rybakov EG. Stapled ileostomy closure results in reduction of postoperative morbidity. Tech Coloproctol. 2010;14:19–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shalli K, Watson C, McCaffer L, et al. The effect of peri-stomal infiltration with bupivacaine/epinephrine on post-operative pain, nausea and ease of surgery in reversal of loop ileostomies. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009;24:1435–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Reid K, Pockney P, Pollitt T, Dragnaic B, Smith SR. Randomized clinical trial of short-term outcomes following purse-string versus conventional closure of ileostomy wounds. Br J Surg. 2010;97:1511–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Senapati A, Phillips RK. The trephine colostomy: a permanent left iliac fossa end colostomy without recourse to laparotomy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1991;73:305–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kini SU, Perston Y, Radcliffe AG. Laparoscopically assisted trephine stoma formation. Surg Laparosc Endosc. 1996;6:371–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nelson R, Singer M. Primary repair for penetrating colon injuries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD002247.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weinberg JA, Griggin RL, Vandromme HJ, et al. Management of colon wounds in the setting of damage control laparotomy: a cautionary tale. J Trauma. 2009;67:929–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weinberg JA, Fabian TC, Magnoth LJ, et al. Penetrating rectal trauma: management by anatomic distinction improves outcome. J Trauma. 2006;60:508–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nastro P, Knowles CH, McGrath A, et al. Complications of intestinal stomas. Br J Surg. 2010;97:1885–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Black P. Managing physical postoperative stoma complications. Br J Nurs. 2009;18:S4–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baker ML, Williams RN, Nightingale JM. Causes and management of a high output stoma. Colorectal Dis. 2011;13:191–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ortiz H, Sara HJ, Armendariz P, et al. Does the frequency of paracolostomy hernias depend on the position of the colostomy in the abdominal wall? Int J Colorectal Dis. 1994;9:65–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Williams JG, Etherington R, Haywood MW, Hughes LE. Paraileostomy hernia: a clinical and radiological study. Br J Surg. 1990;77:1355–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Londono-Schimmer EE, Leong AP, Phillips RK. Life table analysis of stomal complications following colostomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1994;37:916–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sjodahl R, Anderberg B, Bolin T. Parastomal hernia in relation to site of the abdominal stoma. Br J Surg. 1988;75:339–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goligher JC. Extraperitoneal colostomy or ileostomy. Br J Surg. 1958;46:97–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Janes A, Cengiz Y, Israelsson LA. Preventing parastomal hernia with a prosthetic mesh: a 5-year follow-up of a randomized study. World J Surg. 2009;33:118–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Janes A, Cengiz Y, Israelsson LA. Randomized clinical trial of the use of a prosthetic mesh to prevent parastomal hernia. Br J Surg. 2004;91:280–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stephenson BM, et al. Minimal anatomical disruption in stoma formation: the lateral rectus abdominis positioned stoma (LRAPS). Colorectal Dis. 2010;12:1049–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Amin SN, Armitage NC, Abercrombie JF, Scholefield JH. Lateral repair of parastomal hernia. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2001;83:206–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sugarbaker PH. Peritoneal approach to prosthetic mesh repair of paraostomy hernias. Ann Surg. 1985;20:344–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Carne PW, Robertson GM, Frizelle FA. Parastomal hernia. Br J Surg. 2003;90:784–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Safadi B. Laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias: early results. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:676–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Muysoms EE, Hauters PJ, Van Nieuwenhoue Y, et al. Laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias: a multi-centre retrospective review and shift in technique. Acta Chir Belg. 2008;108:400–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fligelstone LJ, Wanendeya N, Palmer BV. Osmotic therapy for acute irreducible stoma prolapse. Br J Surg. 1997;84:390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Skaerlund ML, Jacobsen L, Tottrup A. Ileostomy revision using noncutting linear stapler. Colorectal Dis. 2008;10:833–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Attanoos R, Billings PJ, Hughes LE, Williams JG. Ileostomy polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. Gut. 1995;37:840–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    O’Bichere A, Wilkinson K, Rumbles S, et al. Functional outcome after restorative panproctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis decreases an otherwise enhanced quality of life. Br J Surg. 2000;87:802–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Camilleri-Brennan J, Munro A, Steele RJ. Does an ileoanal pouch offer a better quality of life than a permanent ileostomy for patients with ulcerative colitis? J Gastrointest Surg. 2003;7:814–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Seidel SA, Newman AM, Sharp KW. Ileoanal pouch versus ileostomy: is there a difference in quality of life? Am Surg. 2000;66:540–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of General SurgeryRoyal Shrewsbury HospitalShrewsburyUK

Personalised recommendations