Nutritional status is an important independent variable influencing outcome from surgery. Malnourished patients do less well after surgery. They have higher mortality rates, more complications, longer lengths of stay, and cost more to treat. A large number of studies have shown a relationship between nutritional status and clinical outcome following surgery. As long ago as 1936, a tenfold difference in mortality after gastrectomy was demonstrated when severely malnourished and more normally nourished patients were compared . Many more recent studies have shown marked increases in postoperative morbidity and mortality after gastrointestinal surgery in severely malnourished patients and moreover that they stay in hospital significantly longer at substantial extra cost. These findings have been reproduced consistently across surgical specialties and are particularly relevant in colorectal surgery (Box 23.1).
KeywordsParenteral Nutrition Handgrip Strength Micronutrient Deficiency Peripherally Insert Central Catheter Intestinal Failure
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