An Integrated Pedestrian Behavior Model Based on Extended Decision Field Theory and Social Force Model

  • Hui Xi
  • Seungho Lee
  • Young-Jun Son


A novel pedestrian behavior model is proposed, which integrates (1) extended decision field theory (EDFT) for tactical level human decision-making, (2) social force model (SFM) to represent physical interactions and congestions among people and the environment, and (3) dynamic planning algorithm involving AND/OR graphs. Furthermore, SFM is enhanced with the vision of each individual, and both individual and group behaviors are considered. The proposed model is illustrated and demonstrated with a shopping mall scenario (a typical mall in the city of Tucson, AZ). Literature survey and observations have been conducted at the mall for data collection and partial validation of the proposed model. The computational environment for human-in-the-loop experiment is also conceptually developed, which will be used to collect more human data in the future. We then developed a simulation model of the considered mall using AnyLogic® software, where each individual in the simulation executes a planning algorithm to select a destination, EDFT for choosing a direction, and extended social force model (ESFM) to adjust its velocity. Using the constructed crowd simulation model, several experiments have been conducted to test the impact of various factors (e.g. consideration of human’s vision, group shopping behavior, arrangement of stores, complexity of the model) on several metrics such as the average distance among neighboring shoppers, the movement speed of pedestrians, profit of the shopping mall, and scalability.


Shopping Mall Crowd Behavior Group Shopper Crowd Density Potential Destination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Systems and Industrial Engineering DepartmentThe University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Mechatronics and Manufacturing Technology CenterSamsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Suwon-CityRepublic of Korea

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