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Solar Technology

  • Mervyn Smyth
Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

The introduction of glass represented a significant step forward in the performance of solar capture technology. This simple structure allowed short-wave solar radiation to pass into the building space, whilst keeping the unwanted vagaries of the external environment out, such as rain, wind and snow. Once in the building the surrounding building structure increases in temperature through solar absorption, but due to the long-wave nature of radiation being emitted from these surfaces, the energy is trapped…. the classic ‘greenhouse effect’. The benefit of this ‘solar trap’ was not lost on the Romans, and many variations of the basic principle were incorporated into Roman buildings. The glazed caldarium is a good example of enhanced space and water heating design and a detailed understanding of solar interactions was demonstrated through adding darkening agents to floor surfaces to improve solar absorption and thus heat gain.

Keywords

Heat Exchanger Heat Pipe Phase Change Material Solar Collector Solar Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols

Aap

Aperture area (m2)

a1

Thermal loss factor 1 (W/Km2)

a2

Thermal loss factor 2 (W/K2m2)

cp

Specific heat capacity (kJ/kg°C)

Iave

Insolation (W/m2)

FR

Collector heat removal factor

m

Mass of water (kg)

Qcol

Thermal energy collected (MJ)

Qstore

Energy stored (MJ)

Tamb

Average ambient temperature (K)

Tm

Mean fluid temperature as a function of the insolation (Km2/W)

Ti

Average inlet water temperature (K)

To

Average outlet water temperature (K)

UL

Collector overall heat loss coefficient (W/K)

ΔT

Temperature change from initial conditions (K)

ηcol

Collection efficiency

ηopt

Optical efficiency

τα

Transmission absorptive coefficient

References

  1. 1.
    Bliss R (1959) The derivation of several plate efficiency factors useful in the design of flat plate solar heat collectors. Sol Energy 3:55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Butti K, Perlin J (1981) A golden thread. Marion Boyars Publishers Ltd., London, UKGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hottel H, Whillier A (1958) Evaluation of flat plate collector performance. Trans. conf. on the use of solar energy, Tucson, Arizona, USA, 2, pp 74–104Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kemp CM (1891) US Patent No. 451384, 28th April 1891Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mouchot A (1869) La Chaleur Solaire et Ses Applications Industrielles. Paris Gauthier Villar, Imprimeur Libraire, FranceGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Norton B, Lo SNG (2006) Anatomy of a solar collector: developments in materials, components and efficiency improvements in solar thermal collectors. Refocus 7(3):32–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of the Built Environment Centre for Sustainable TechnologiesUniversity of UlsterNewtownabbeyUK

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