Sex and Gender Differences in Autoimmune Diseases

  • Gisele Zandman-Goddard
  • Elena Peeva
  • Ziv Rozman
  • Ilan Ben-Zvi
  • Pnina Langevitz
  • Yulia Shvartser
  • Daniela Amital
  • Howard Amital
  • Shaye Kivity
  • Merav Lidar
  • Hedi Orbach
  • Yehuda Shoenfeld


Autoimmune and rheumatological diseases often come to mind when thinking about gender differences in medicine.

While sex ratios vary among the conditions presented herein, female patients are predominantly affected by autoimmune diseases, possibly due to differences in susceptibility, hormonal influences, genetics, and exposure and response to environmental triggers. Where the male incidence is low, the diagnosis of autoimmune disease may be delayed. The clinical and serological differences among the genders are yet to be elucidated. In this chapter, we will discuss the potential biological influences on disease development, with an emphasis on the influence of gender on the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes. The diseases that will be presented are systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis, Sjogren’s syndrome, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.


Rheumatoid Arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Ankylose Spondylitis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gisele Zandman-Goddard
    • 1
    • 2
  • Elena Peeva
    • 3
  • Ziv Rozman
    • 1
  • Ilan Ben-Zvi
    • 4
  • Pnina Langevitz
    • 2
    • 4
  • Yulia Shvartser
    • 5
  • Daniela Amital
    • 6
  • Howard Amital
    • 2
    • 5
  • Shaye Kivity
    • 4
  • Merav Lidar
    • 2
    • 4
  • Hedi Orbach
    • 7
  • Yehuda Shoenfeld
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Internal Medicine Department CWolfson Medical CenterHolonIsrael
  2. 2.Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel-Aviv UniversityTel-AvivIsrael
  3. 3.Division of RheumatologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune DiseasesSheba Medical CenterTel HashomerIsrael
  5. 5.Department of Medicine BSheba Medical CenterTel HashomerIsrael
  6. 6.Department of Psychiatry BNess Ziona Mental Health CenterNess ZionaIsrael
  7. 7.Department of Medicine BWolfson Medical CenterHolonIsrael

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