Sex and Gender Differences in Nephrology

  • Maurizio Gallieni
  • Nicoletta Mezzina
  • Cristina Pinerolo
  • Antonio Granata


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects a substantial proportion of the world population, especially among the elderly, and it is increasingly recognized as a global public health problem.1 CKD has been recently divided into five different stages (Table 7.1). The classification is based on the level of glomerular filtration rate, except in stage 1, where GFR is normal but other markers of kidney damage are present, including abnormalities in the composition of blood or urine or abnormalities in imaging tests.2 In the U.S.A., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention3 estimated the prevalence of CKD (overall and by health risk factors and other characteristics), from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 16.8% of the US population aged more than 20 years had CKD, according to 1999–2004 NHANES data, compared with 14.5% from the 1988–1994 NHANES (i.e., NHANES III), an increase of 15.9% based on crude estimates of prevalence.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetic Nephropathy Renal Replacement Therapy Lupus Nephritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurizio Gallieni
    • 1
  • Nicoletta Mezzina
    • 1
  • Cristina Pinerolo
    • 2
  • Antonio Granata
    • 3
  1. 1.Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital and Specialty School of NephrologyUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  2. 2.Nephrology and Dialysis UnitSan Carlo Borromeo HospitalMilanItaly
  3. 3.Department of Nephrology and DialysisAOU “Policlinico – Vittorio Emanuele”CataniaItaly

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