Sex and Gender Differences in Pulmonary Diseases

  • Christian Grohé


Pulmonary diseases such as obstructive lung disease and lung cancer display a very unfavorable trend in the near future. They belong to a class of clinical entities which show a worldwide increase both in morbidity and mortality. COPD (chronic obstructive lung disease) is currently estimated to reach number three in 2020 among the diseases with the highest incidence worldwide and lung cancer has established its role as the most common and aggressive form of solid tumors. Therefore, understanding of sex- and gender-based differences is crucial to cope with the upcoming epidemics in lung disease. In particular, the analysis of gender-based coping strategies with lung disease is of interest to battle disease burden.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patient Deep Venous Thrombosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Respiratory MedicineEvangelische Lungenklinik BerlinBerlinGermany

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