Sex and Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease

  • Vera Regitz-Zagrosek


Gender differences play a major role in the manifestation and outcomes of cardiovascular disease. We will focus on a few exemplary syndromes, such as heart failure (HF), and its most frequent causes such as hypertension, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery disease (CAD), on cardiomyopathies and atrial fibrillation. Hypertension, diabetes, and myocardial hypertrophy are the major risk factors for HF in women, whereas prior myocardial infarction is more relevant in men. Cardiomyopathies are a rare but particularly severe cause of HF leading to 50% of all transplantations for end-stage HF in both genders. This is by far not a complete list of cardiovascular diseases with major gender differences.


Myocardial Infarction Atrial Fibrillation Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Systolic Heart Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Gender in Medicine (GiM), Center for Cardiovascular Research (CCR)Charité - UniversitätsmedizinBerlinGermany

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