Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: The Role of Sex and Gender

  • Flavia Franconi
  • Manuela Sanna
  • Elisabetta Straface
  • Roberto Chessa
  • Giuseppe Rosano


In the last years, the attention versus the influence of sex/gender in the drug response largely increased. Since 2001, the Institute of Medicine indicates that “sex matters,” that is, “being male or female is an important basic human variable that should be considered when designing and analyzing studies in all areas and at all levels of … health-related research.”1 Generally, the FDA does not attempt to determine why men are different from women and refers to any identified difference as a “gender difference.2


Adverse Drug Effect Constitutive Androstane Receptor Sexual Hormone Constitutive Androstane Receptor Activity Organic Acid Transporter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Supposte by grant “La Medicina di Genere come Obiettivo Strategico per la Sanità Pubblica: l’Appropriatezza della Cura per la Tutela della Salute della Donna” Ricerca Finalizzata -Ministero della Salute 2007. We are also grateful for the financial support over the years of Fondazione Banco di Sardegna and that of Regione Autonoma of Sardegna.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Flavia Franconi
    • 1
  • Manuela Sanna
    • 2
  • Elisabetta Straface
    • 3
  • Roberto Chessa
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Rosano
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of SassariSassariItaly
  2. 2.INBB Laboratorio Nazionale di Osilo, INBBSassariItaly
  3. 3.Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicine Evaluation Istituto Superiore di SanitàIstituto Superiore di SanitàRomeItaly
  4. 4.Dipartimento di Scienze InternisticheIRCCS San Raffaele Pisana RomaRomeItaly

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