Sex and Gender Differences in Neurology

  • Christian H. Nolte
  • Peter U. Heuschmann
  • Matthias Endres


Neurology deals with disorders of the nervous system that may involve its central, peripheral, and/or autonomic part and its effector tissue (particularly muscle). Sex and gender affects the incidence, prevalence, and dynamics of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. This chapter deals with examples of gender differences in neurological diseases and describes a broad variety of underlying pathologies. The examples given include nervous diseases of inflammatory (multiple sclerosis), vascular (stroke), and degenerative (Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s) origin, as well as a functional state of increased vulnerability to seizures (Epilepsy) (Fig. 11.1).


Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis Patient Deep Brain Stimulation Optic Neuritis Glatiramer Acetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian H. Nolte
    • 1
  • Peter U. Heuschmann
    • 2
  • Matthias Endres
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyCharité University MedicineBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Center for Stroke Research BerlinCharité University MedicineBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Department of Neurology and Center for Stroke Research BerlinCharité University MedicineBerlinGermany

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