General Part

  • Paul Harwood
  • Peter V. Giannoudis


Injection and aspiration procedures are widely employed in the diagnosis and treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. Joint aspiration is used to obtain fluid samples for diagnostic purposes and to relieve pain from tense effusions. Injections most commonly consist of local anesthetic or steroid to provide pain relief and to treat inflammation. A thorough understanding of local anatomy is ­imperative when undertaking such procedures if accurate needle placement is to be achieved, avoiding ­misplaced injections and the potential for complications. The following is a discussion of general advice regarding any musculoskeletal injection and specific descriptions of the more common procedures that are carried out in clinical practice.


Local Anesthetic Septic Arthritis Provide Pain Relief Joint Aspiration Sterile Glove 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Many thanks to Ceryl Harwood and Rebecca Dawson for their help with modeling and photography for the injection pictures.

Further Readings

  1.  .
    Bellamy N, Campbell J, Robinson V, et al. Intraarticular corticosteroid for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee (abstract). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;19(2):CD005328.Google Scholar
  2.  .
    Nichols AW. Complications associated with the use of corticosteroids in the treatment of athletic injuries (abstract). Clin J Sport Med. 2005;15(5):370–5.Google Scholar
  3.  .
    Osteoarthritis, NICE Clinical Guideline (January 2008). The care and management of osteoarthritis in adults.Google Scholar
  4.  .
    Petrella RJ, Petrella M. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid for osteoarthritis of the knee (abstract). J Rheumatol. 2006;33(5):951–6.Google Scholar
  5.  .
    Wallen M, Gillies D. Intra-articular steroids and splints/rest for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and adults with rheumatoid arthritis (abstract). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;25(1):CD002824.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic SurgeryLeeds Teaching Hospitals NHS TrustLeedsUK
  2. 2.Academic Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, School of MedicineUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations