Claw/Hammer Toe Repair

  • Peter V. Giannoudis
  • Efthimios J. Karadimas


Abnormal flexion posture of the PIP joint that is often present in all toes. Frequently caused by neuromuscular diseases.


Proximal Phalanx Metatarsophalangeal Joint Flexion Deformity Mattress Stitch Thigh Tourniquet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading

  1. Bayod J, Losa-Iglesias M, de Bengoa-Vallejo RB, Prados-Frutos JC, Jules KT, Doblaré M. Advantages and drawbacks of proximal interphalangeal joint fusion versus flexor tendon transfer in the correction of hammer and claw toe deformity. A finite-element study. J Biomech Eng. 2010;132(5):051002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Schrier JC, Verheyen CC, Louwerens JW. Definitions of hammer toe and claw toe: an evaluation of the literature. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2009;99(3):194–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Saltzman CL, Johnson KA, Donnelly RE. Surgical treatment for mild deformities of the rheumatoid forefoot by partial phalangectomy and syndactylization. Foot Ankle. 1993;14(6):325–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Academic Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, School of MedicineUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic SurgeryLeeds Teaching Hospitals NHS TrustLeedsUK

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