Hardware and Functional Development of Protection Devices and Systems

  • Waldemar Rebizant
  • Janusz Szafran
  • Andrzej Wiszniewski
Part of the Signals and Communication Technology book series (SCT)


The age of protection began some 105 years ago, when control apparatus were for the first time connected to current and voltage transformers, which reduced the primary currents and voltages to secondary levels. The secondary currents and voltages could be processed to generate TRIP or NO-TRIP decisions.


Protection Device Protection Relay Phasor Measurement Unit Fundamental Frequency Component Intelligent Electronic Device 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited  2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waldemar Rebizant
    • 1
  • Janusz Szafran
    • 1
  • Andrzej Wiszniewski
    • 1
  1. 1.Wroclaw University of TechnologyWroclawPoland

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