Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vagina

  • Laurence Brown
Part of the Essentials of Diagnostic Gynecological Pathology book series (EDGP)


Squamous carcinoma of the vulva and vagina is increasing in incidence and appears to be related to HPV infection in younger women and chronic irritation in older women. Individualized treatment aims to prevent unnecessary surgery by recognizing early stage disease amenable to simple excision and is focusing on sentinel node analysis for vulval cancer. Care must be taken to distinguish squamous carcinoma from benign mimics such as wart, verruca vulgaris, herpes simplex, hyperplasia, keratoacanthoma, verruciform xanthoma, papillomatosis, and polyps. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva is a rare disease that must be separated from squamous carcinoma in order to prevent overtreatment.


Sentinel Node Basal Cell Carcinoma Squamous Carcinoma Granular Cell Tumor Vulval Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Japaze H, Garcia-Bunuel R, Woodruff JD. Primary vulvar neoplasia: a review of in situ and invasive carcinoma, 1935–1972. Obstet Gynecol. 1977;49(4):404–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Herod JJ, Shafi MI, Rollason TP, Jordan JA, Luesley DM. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: long term follow up of treated and untreated women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1996;103(5):446–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tavassoli FA, Devilee P. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the breast and female genital organs. WHO Classification of tumours. Lyon: IARC Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chiesa-Vottero A, Dvoretsky PM, Hart WR. Histopathologic study of thin vulvar squamous cell carcinomas and associated cutaneous lesions: a correlative study of 48 tumors in 44 patients with analysis of adjacent vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia types and lichen sclerosus. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30(3):310–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Husseinzadeh N, Wesseler T, Schneider D, Schellhas H, Nahhas W. Prognostic factors and the significance of cytologic grading in invasive squamous cell ­carcinoma of the vulva: a clinicopathologic study. Gynecol Oncol. 1990;36(2):192–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andreasson B, Nyboe J. Value of prognostic parameters in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol. 1985;22(3):341–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Broders A. Squamous cell epithelioma of the skin. A study of 256 cases. Ann Surg. 1921;73:141–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Trimble CL, Hildesheim A, Brinton LA, Shah KV, Kurman RJ. Heterogeneous etiology of squamous carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;87(1):59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Santos M, Montagut C, Mellado B, Garcia A, Ramon y Cajal S, Cardesa A, et al. Immunohistochemical staining for p16 and p53 in premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2004;23(3):206–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Steeper TA, Piscioli F, Rosai J. Squamous cell carcinoma with sarcoma-like stroma of the female genital tract. Clinicopathologic study of four cases. Cancer. 1983;52(5):890–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Al-Ghamdi A, Freedman D, Miller D, Poh C, Rosin M, Zhang L, et al. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in young women: a clinicopathologic study of 21 cases. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;84(1):94–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Choo YC. Invasive squamous carcinoma of the vulva in young patients. Gynecol Oncol. 1982;13(2):158–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carter J, Carlson J, Fowler J, Hartenbach E, Adcock L, Carson L, et al. Invasive vulvar tumors in young women – a disease of the immunosuppressed? Gynecol Oncol. 1993;51(3):307–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mousavi A, Abbasi F, Abadi AG, Hashemi FA. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma associated with Fanconi’s anemia. Int J Hematol. 2010;91(3):498–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Volgger B, Marth C, Zeimet A, Muller-Holzner E, Ruth N, Dapunt O. Fulminant course of a microinvasive vulvar carcinoma in an immunosuppressed woman. Gynecol Oncol. 1997;65(1):177–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Caterson RJ, Furber J, Murray J, McCarthy W, Mahony JF, Sheil AG. Carcinoma of the vulva in two young renal allograft recipients. Transplant Proc. 1984;16(2):559–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leckie GB, Cotton RE. Simultaneous in situ carcinoma of the cervix, vulva and perineum after immunosuppressive therapy for renal transplantation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1977;84(2):143–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown JE, Sunborg MJ, Kost E, Cosin JA, Winter 3rd WE. Vulvar cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive premenopausal women: a case series and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2005;9(1):7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Preston M. Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva presenting amongst gigantic vulval warts. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;25(3):316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Choi DS, Lee JW, Lee SJ, Choi CH, Kim TJ, Lee JH, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features of the vulva: a case report and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;103(1):363–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Santeusanio G, Schiaroli S, Anemona L, Sesti F, Valli E, Piccione E, et al. Carcinoma of the vulva with sarcomatoid features: a case report with immunohistochemical study. Gynecol Oncol. 1991;40(2):160–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beller U, Quinn MA, Benedet JL, Creasman WT, Ngan HY, Maisonneuve P, et al. Carcinoma of the vulva. FIGO 26th Annual Report on the Results of Treatment in Gynecological Cancer. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;95 Suppl 1:S7–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    CRUK. Vulval cancer – UK incidence statistics. 2010. Accessed in 2011.
  24. 24.
    CRUK. Vulval cancer – UK incidence statistics. 2010. Accessed in 2011.
  25. 25.
    Joura EA, Losch A, Haider-Angeler MG, Breitenecker G, Leodolter S. Trends in vulvar neoplasia. Increasing incidence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in young women. J Reprod Med. 2000;45(8):613–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sankaranarayanan R, Ferlay J. Worldwide burden of gynaecological cancer: the size of the problem. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;20(2):207–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Piura B, Rabinovich A, Cohen Y, Friger M, Glezerman M. Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in the south of Israel: a study of 50 cases. J Surg Oncol. 1998;67(3):174–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vandborg MP, Christensen RD, Kragstrup J, Edwards K, Vedsted P, Hansen DG, et al. Reasons for diagnostic delay in gynecological malignancies. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2011;21(6):967–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ansink A. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Semin Dermatol. 1996;15(1):51–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Coleman RL, Santoso JT. Vulvar carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2000;1(2):177–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Armes JE, Lourie R, Bowlay G, Tabrizi S. Pagetoid squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the vulva: comparison with extramammary paget disease and nonpagetoid squamous cell neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008;27(1):118–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bakour SH, Jaleel H, Weaver JB, Kehoe S, Radcliffe KW. Vulvar carcinoma presenting during pregnancy, associated with recurrent bone marrow hypoplasia: a case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;87(2):207–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Heller DS, Cracchiolo B, Hameed M, May T. Pregnancy-associated invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in a 28-year-old. HIV-negative woman. A case report. J Reprod Med. 2000;45(8):659–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Regan MA, Rosenzweig BA. Vulvar carcinoma in pregnancy: a case report and literature review. Am J Perinatol. 1993;10(4):334–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chan JK, Sugiyama V, Pham H, Gu M, Rutgers J, Osann K, et al. Margin distance and other clinico-pathologic prognostic factors in vulvar carcinoma: a multivariate analysis. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;104(3):636–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tantipalakorn C, Robertson G, Marsden DE, Gebski V, Hacker NF. Outcome and patterns of recurrence for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages I and II squamous cell vulvar cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(4):895–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kumar S, Shah JP, Bryant CS, Imudia AN, Morris RT, Malone Jr JM. A comparison of younger vs older women with vulvar cancer in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200(5):e52–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nicoletto MO, Parenti A, Del Bianco P, Lombardi G, Pedrini L, Pizzi S, et al. Vulvar cancer: prognostic factors. Anticancer Res. 2010;30(6):2311–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rhodes CA, Cummins C, Shafi MI. The management of squamous cell vulval cancer: a population based retrospective study of 411 cases. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;105(2):200–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Husseinzadeh N, Zaino R, Nahhas WA, Mortel R. The significance of histologic findings in predicting nodal metastases in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol. 1983;16(1):105–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Drew PA, al-Abbadi MA, Orlando CA, Hendricks JB, Kubilis PS, Wilkinson EJ. Prognostic factors in carcinoma of the vulva: a clinicopathologic and DNA flow cytometric study. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1996;15(3):235–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ansink A, Mooi WJ, van Doornewaard G, van Tinteren H, Heintz AP, Ivanyi D. Cytokeratin subtypes and involucrin in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. An immunohistochemical study of 41 cases. Cancer. 1995;76(4):638–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pecorelli S. Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;105(2):103–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Oonk MH, Hollema H, de Hullu JA, van der Zee AG. Prediction of lymph node metastases in vulvar cancer: a review. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16(3):963–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ndubisi B, Kaminski PF, Olt G, Sorosky J, Singapuri K, Hackett T, et al. Staging and recurrence of disease in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol. 1995;59(1):34–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    van der Velden J, van Lindert AC, Lammes FB, ten Kate FJ, Sie-Go DM, Oosting H, et al. Extracapsular growth of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. The impact on recurrence and survival. Cancer. 1995;75(12):2885–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fons G, Hyde SE, Buist MR, Schilthuis MS, Grant P, Burger MP, et al. Prognostic value of bilateral positive nodes in squamous cell cancer of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009;19(7):1276–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Raspagliesi F, Hanozet F, Ditto A, Solima E, Zanaboni F, Vecchione F, et al. Clinical and pathological prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;102(2):333–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Emanuels AG, Burger MP, Hollema H, Koudstaal J. Quantitation of proliferation-associated markers Ag-NOR and Ki-67 does not contribute to the prediction of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Hum Pathol. 1996;27(8):807–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gordinier ME, Steinhoff MM, Hogan JW, Peipert JF, Gajewski WH, Falkenberry SS, et al. S-Phase fraction, p53, and HER-2/neu status as predictors of nodal metastasis in early vulvar cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 1997;67(2):200–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lerma E, Matias-Guiu X, Lee SJ, Prat J. Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: study of ploidy, HPV, p53, and pRb. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1999;18(3):191–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Preti M, Ronco G, Ghiringhello B, Micheletti L. Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: clinicopathologic determinants identifying low risk patients. Cancer. 2000;88(8):1869–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gonzalez Bosquet J, Magrina JF, Gaffey TA, Hernandez JL, Webb MJ, Cliby WA, et al. Long-term survival and disease recurrence in patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;97(3):828–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Horn LC, Wagner S. Frozen section analysis of vulvectomy specimens: results of a 5-year study period. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2010;29(2):165–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Konanahalli P, Menon P, Walsh MY, McCluggage WG. Enterobious vermicularis (pinworm) infestation of the vulva: report of 2 cases of a pseudoneoplastic lesion mimicking squamous carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2010;29(5):490–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Buckley CH, Butler EB, Fox H. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and microinvasive carcinoma of the vulva. J Clin Pathol. 1984;37(11):1201–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wilkinson EJ, Rico MJ, Pierson KK. Microinvasive carcinoma of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1982;1(1):29–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wells M, Jenkins M. Selected topics in the histopathology of the vulva. Curr Diagn Pathol. 1994;1:41–7.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vernooij F, Sie-Go DM, Heintz AP. Lymph node recurrence following stage IA vulvar carcinoma: two cases and a short overview of literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17(2):517–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sidor J, Diallo-Danebrock R, Eltze E, Lelle RJ. Challenging the concept of microinvasive carcinoma of the vulva: report of a case with regional lymph node recurrence and review of the literature. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Van Der Velden J, Kooyman CD, Van Lindert AC, Heintz AP. A stage Ia vulvar carcinoma with an inguinal lymph node recurrence after local excision. A case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 1992;2(3):157–9.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Atamdede F, Hoogerland D. Regional lymph node recurrence following local excision for microinvasive vulvar carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 1989;34(1):125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hicks ML, Hempling RE, Piver MS. Vulvar carcinoma with 0.5 mm of invasion and associated inguinal lymph node metastasis. J Surg Oncol. 1993;54(4):271–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schausberger C, Six L, Horvat R, Joura EA. Groin metastasis after extensive microinvasive vulvar cancer. A case report. J Reprod Med. 2007;52(2):78–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Figge DC, Tamimi HK, Greer BE. Lymphatic spread in carcinoma of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;152(4):387–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gonzalez Bosquet J, Magrina JF, Magtibay PM, Gaffey TA, Cha SS, Jones MB, et al. Patterns of inguinal groin metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105(3):742–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Berchuck A, Rodriguez G, Kamel A, Soper JT, Clarke-Pearson DL, Bast Jr RC. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and HER-2/neu in normal and neoplastic cervix, vulva, and vagina. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;76(3 Pt 1):381–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Oonk MH, de Bock GH, van der Veen DJ, Ten Hoor KA, de Hullu JA, Hollema H, et al. EGFR expression is associated with groin node metastases in vulvar cancer, but does not improve their prediction. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;104(1):109–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ambros RA, Malfetano JH, Mihm Jr MC. Clinicopathologic features of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas exhibiting prominent fibromyxoid stromal response. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1996;15(2):137–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    de Hullu JA, Oonk MH, van der Zee AG. Modern management of vulvar cancer. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2004;16(1):65–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Crosbie EJ, Slade RJ, Ahmed AS. The management of vulval cancer. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009;35(7):533–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    de Hullu JA, Doting E, Piers DA, Hollema H, Aalders JG, Koops HS, et al. Sentinel lymph node identification with technetium-99m-labeled nanocolloid in squamous cell cancer of the vulva. J Nucl Med. 1998;39(8):1381–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Crosbie EJ, Winter-Roach B, Sengupta P, Sikand KA, Carrington B, Murby B, et al. The accuracy of the sentinel node procedure after excision biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Surg Oncol. 2010;19(4):e150–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hampl M, Hantschmann P, Michels W, Hillemanns P. Validation of the accuracy of the sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with vulvar cancer: results of a multicenter study in Germany. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;111(2):282–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Puig-Tintore LM, Ordi J, Vidal-Sicart S, Lejarcegui JA, Torne A, Pahisa J, et al. Further data on the usefulness of sentinel lymph node identification and ultrastaging in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;88(1):29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Moore RG, Granai CO, Gajewski W, Gordinier M, Steinhoff MM. Pathologic evaluation of inguinal sentinel lymph nodes in vulvar cancer patients: a comparison of immunohistochemical staining versus ultrastaging with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;91(2):378–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tamussino KF, Bader AA, Lax SF, Aigner RM, Winter R. Groin recurrence after micrometastasis in a sentinel lymph node in a patient with vulvar cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;86(1):99–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    de Hullu JA, van der Zee AG. Tammussino et al.: groin recurrence after micrometastasis in a sentinel lymph node in a patient with vulvar cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;89(1):189–90; author reply 191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Knopp S, Holm R, Trope C, Nesland JM. Occult lymph node metastases in early stage vulvar carcinoma patients. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;99(2):383–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Leys CM, Hartenbach EM, Hafez GR, Mahvi DM. Screening for occult nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2000;19(3):243–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Narayansingh GV, Miller ID, Sharma M, Welch CJ, Sharp L, Parkin DE, et al. The prognostic significance of micrometastases in node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Br J Cancer. 2005;92(2):222–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Moss EL, Hirschowitz L, Luesley DM. Skin scar recurrence following removal of a sentinel lymph node containing a solitary micrometastasis of squamous cell vulval cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;121(1):239–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    TjinAsjoe FM, van Bekkum E, Ewing P, Burger CW, Ansink AC. Sentinel node procedure in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: a histomorphologic review of 32 cases. The significance of anucleate structures on immunohistochemistry. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2008;18(5):1032–6.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Johann S, Klaeser B, Krause T, Mueller MD. Comparison of outcome and recurrence-free survival after sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy in vulvar cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;110(3):324–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Van der Zee AG, Oonk MH, De Hullu JA, Ansink AC, Vergote I, Verheijen RH, et al. Sentinel node dissection is safe in the treatment of early-stage vulvar cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(6):884–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Programme NBS. Pathology reporting of breast disease. NHS Breast Screening Programme publication; 2005. p. 58.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Le T, Elsugi R, Hopkins L, Faught W, Fung-Kee-Fung M. The definition of optimal inguinal femoral nodal dissection in the management of vulva squamous cell carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14(7):2128–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Walker KF, Day H, Abu J, Nunns D, Williamson K, Duncan T. Do surgical techniques used in groin lymphadenectomy for vulval cancer affect morbidity rates? Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2011;21(8):1495–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Horn LC, Liebert UG, Edelmann J, Hockel M, Einenkel J. Adenoid squamous carcinoma (pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma) of the vulva: a rare but highly aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma-report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008;27(2):288–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lasser A, Cornog JL, Morris JM. Adenoid squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Cancer. 1974;33(1):224–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Underwood JW, Adcock LL, Okagaki T. Adenosquamous carcinoma of skin appendages (adenoid squamous cell carcinoma, pseudoglandular squamous cell carcinoma, adenocanthoma of sweat gland of Lever) of the vulva: a clinical and ultrastructural study. Cancer. 1978;42(4):1851–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Carson LF, Twiggs LB, Okagaki T, Clark BA, Ostrow RS, Faras AJ. Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol. 1988;72(1):63–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Giordano G, D’Adda T, Merisio C, Gnetti L. Vulvar acantholytic squamous carcinoma: a case report with immunohistochemical and molecular study. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2005;24(3):303–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nappi O, Swanson PE, Wick MR. Pseudovascular adenoid squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: clinicopathologic study of three cases and comparison with true pleuropulmonary angiosarcoma. Hum Pathol. 1994;25(4):373–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Parramore B, Hanly M, Yeh KA, McNeely T. Acantholytic variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report. Am Surg. 1999;65(5):467–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Papadopoulou E, Tosios KI, Nikitakis N, Papadogeorgakis N, Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou A. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109(6):e67–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Horie Y, Kato M. Pseudovascular squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a lesion that may simulate an angiosarcoma. Pathol Int. 1999;49(2):170–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Japaze H, Van Dinh T, Woodruff JD. Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva: study of 24 cases. Obstet Gynecol. 1982;60(4):462–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Brisigotti M, Moreno A, Murcia C, Matias-Guiu X, Prat J. Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of five cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1989;8(1):1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Degefu S, O’Quinn AG, Lacey CG, Merkel M, Barnard DE. Verrucous carcinoma of the cervix: a report of two cases and literature review. Gynecol Oncol. 1986;25(1):37–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Illanes D, Broman J, Meyer B, Kredentser D, McElrath T, Timmins 3rd P. Verrucous carcinoma of the endometrium: case history, pathologic findings, brief review of literature and discussion. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;102(2):375–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fancher TT, Hamzi MH, Macaron SH, Magno WB, Dudrick SJ, Palesty JA. Hybrid verrucous-squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary with synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Int J Surg Pathol. 2008;16(1):91–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nascimento AF, Granter SR, Cviko A, Yuan L, Hecht JL, Crum CP. Vulvar acanthosis with altered differentiation: a precursor to verrucous carcinoma? Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28(5):638–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gualco M, Bonin S, Foglia G, Fulcheri E, Odicino F, Prefumo F, et al. Morphologic and biologic studies on ten cases of verrucous carcinoma of the vulva supporting the theory of a discrete clinico-pathologic entity. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2003;13(3):317–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kondi-Paphitis A, Deligeorgi-Politi H, Liapis A, Plemenou-Frangou M. Human papilloma virus in verrucus carcinoma of the vulva: an immunopathological study of three cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1998;19(3):319–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Levitan Z, Kaplan AL, Kaufman RH. Advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva after treatment for verrucous carcinoma. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1992;37(10):889–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gadducci A, De Punzio C, Facchini V, Rispoli G, Fioretti P. The therapy of verrucous carcinoma of the vulva. Observations on three cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1989;10(4):284–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Iwamoto I, Kijima Y, Fujino T, Yoshinaga M, Douchi T. Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva in Turner syndrome. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;92(1):380–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tran TA, Carlson JA. Plasmacytoid squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008;27(4):601–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wolber RA, Talerman A, Wilkinson EJ, Clement PB. Vulvar granular cell tumors with pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia: a comparative analysis with well-differentiated squamous carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1991;10(1):59–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Persoons JH, Sutorius FJ, Koopman RJ, Schaafsma MR, van Doorn GA. Vulvar paraneoplastic amyloidosis with the appearance of a vulvar carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(4):1041–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Nuovo GJ, Friedman D, Richart RM. In situ hybridization analysis of human papillomavirus DNA segregation patterns in lesions of the female genital tract. Gynecol Oncol. 1990;36(2):256–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Chiasson MA, Ellerbrock TV, Bush TJ, Sun XW, Wright Jr TC. Increased prevalence of vulvovaginal condyloma and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89(5 Pt 1):690–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Marshburn PB, Trofatter Jr KF. Recurrent condyloma acuminatum in women over age 40: association with immunosuppression and malignant disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;159(2):429–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sonnex C, Strauss S, Gray JJ. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA on the fingers of patients with genital warts. Sex Transm Infect. 1999;75(5):317–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Aguilera-Barrantes I, Magro C, Nuovo GJ. Verruca vulgaris of the vulva in children and adults: a nonvenereal type of vulvar wart. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007;31(4):529–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Moyal-Barracco M, Leibowitch M, Orth G. Vestibular papillae of the vulva. Lack of evidence for human papillomavirus etiology. Arch Dermatol. 1990;126(12):1594–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Crum CP, Fu YS, Levine RU, Richart RM, Townsend DE, Fenoglio CM. Intraepithelial squamous lesions of the vulva: biologic and histologic criteria for the distinction of condylomas from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982;144(1):77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nucci MR, Genest DR, Tate JE, Sparks CK, Crum CP. Pseudobowenoid change of the vulva: a histologic variant of untreated condylata acuminatum. Mod Pathol. 1996;9(4):375–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Harwood CA, Mortimer PS. Acquired vulval lymphangiomata mimicking genital warts. Br J Dermatol. 1993;129(3):334–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Brainard JA, Hart WR. Proliferative epidermal lesions associated with anogenital Paget’s disease. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24(4):543–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Konig A, Wennemuth G, Soyer HP, Hoffmann R, Happle R, Krause W. Vulvar amyloidosis mimicking giant condylomata acuminata in a patient with multiple myeloma. Eur J Dermatol. 1999;9(1):29–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Schiera A, Pini M, Pioltelli P, Rossi E, Valente MG, Crippa D. Perianal condyloma-like lesions in multiple myeloma associated amyloidosis. Eur J Dermatol. 2004;14(3):193–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Goldsmith PC, Leslie TA, Sams V, Bryceson AD, Allason-Jones E, Dowd PM. Lesions of schistosomiasis mimicking warts on the vulva. BMJ. 1993;307(6903):556–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Poggensee G, Kiwelu I, Weger V, Goppner D, Diedrich T, Krantz I, et al. Female genital schistosomiasis of the lower genital tract: prevalence and disease-associated morbidity in northern Tanzania. J Infect Dis. 2000;181(3):1210–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Handley J, Hanks E, Armstrong K, Bingham A, Dinsmore W, Swann A, et al. Common association of HPV 2 with anogenital warts in prepubertal children. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14(5):339–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Domfeh B, Silasi DA, Lindo F, Parkash V. Chronic hypertrophic vulvar herpes simulating neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2012;31(1):33–7.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Mosunjac M, Park J, Wang W, Tadros T, Siddiqui M, Bagirov M, et al. Genital and perianal herpes simplex simulating neoplasia in patients with AIDS. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23(3):153–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Chen W, Koenig C. Vulvar keratoacanthoma: a report of two cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2004;23(3):284–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gilbey S, Moore DH, Look KY, Sutton GP. Vulvar keratoacanthoma. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89(5 Pt 2):848–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Rhatigan RM, Nuss RC. Keratoacanthoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol. 1985;21(1):118–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Connolly M, Narayan S, Oxley J, de Berker DA. Immunohistochemical staining for the differentiation of subungual keratoacanthoma from subungual squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;33(5):625–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kaabipour E, Haupt HM, Stern JB, Kanetsky PA, Podolski VF, Martin AM. p16 expression in keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin: an immunohistochemical study. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130(1):69–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Vasiljevic N, Andersson K, Bjelkenkrantz K, Kjellstrom C, Mansson H, Nilsson E, et al. The Bcl-xL inhibitor of apoptosis is preferentially expressed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma compared with that in keratoacanthoma. Int J Cancer. 2009;124(10):2361–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Mandrell JC, Santa Cruz D. Keratoacanthoma: hyperplasia, benign neoplasm, or a type of squamous cell carcinoma? Semin Diagn Pathol. 2009;26(3):150–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Reich O, Regauer S. Recurrent verruciform xanthoma of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2004;23(1):75–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Cumberland L, Dana A, Resh B, Fitzpatrick J, Goldenberg G. Verruciform xanthoma in the setting of cutaneous trauma and chronic inflammation: report of a patient and a brief review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37(8):895–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    van Beurden M, van der Vange N, de Craen AJ, Tjong AHSP, ten Kate FJ, ter Schegget J, et al. Normal findings in vulvar examination and vulvoscopy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1997;104(3):320–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Welch JM, Nayagam M, Parry G, Das R, Campbell M, Whatley J, et al. What is vestibular papillomatosis? A study of its prevalence, aetiology and natural history. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1993;100(10):939–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Bergeron C, Ferenczy A, Richart RM, Guralnick M. Micropapillomatosis labialis appears unrelated to human papillomavirus. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;76(2):281–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Orosz Z, Lehoczky O, Szoke J, Pulay T. Recurrent giant fibroepithelial stromal polyp of the vulva associated with congenital lymphedema. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;98(1):168–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Bai H, Cviko A, Granter S, Yuan L, Betensky RA, Crum CP. Immunophenotypic and viral (human papillomavirus) correlates of vulvar seborrheic keratosis. Hum Pathol. 2003;34(6):559–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Heller DS, Kuye OO. Recurrent hypertrophy of the labia minora: a hormonally related lesion possibly related to fibroepithelial stromal polyps of the vulva. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2011;15(1):69–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wani Y, Fujioka Y. A vulvar fibroepithelial stromal polyp appearing in infancy. Am J Dermatopathol. 2009;31(5):465–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    de Giorgi V, Massi D, Salvini C, Mannone F, Carli P. Pigmented seborrheic keratoses of the vulva clinically mimicking a malignant melanoma: a clinical, dermoscopic-pathologic case study. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2005;30(1):17–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Venkatesan A. Pigmented lesions of the vulva. Dermatol Clin. 2010;28(4):795–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Li J, Ackerman AB. “Seborrheic keratoses” that contain human papillomavirus are condylomata acuminata. Am J Dermatopathol. 1994;16(4):398–405; discussion 406–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Roth LM, Look KY. Inverted follicular keratosis of the vulvar skin: a lesion that can be confused with squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2000;19(4):369–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Cohen PR, Young Jr AW, Tovell HM. Angiokeratoma of the vulva: diagnosis and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1989;44(5):339–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    McNeely TB. Angiokeratoma of the clitoris. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1992;116(8):880–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Yamazaki M, Hiruma M, Irie H, Ishibashi A. Angiokeratoma of the clitoris: a subtype of angiokeratoma vulvae. J Dermatol. 1992;19(9):553–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    de Giorgi V, Salvini C, Massi D, Raspollini MR, Carli P. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma: retrospective study and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;97(1):192–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Feakins RM, Lowe DG. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva: a clinicopathologic study of 45 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1997;16(4):319–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Palladino VS, Duffy JL, Bures GJ. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva. Cancer. 1969;24(3):460–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Wieland U, Ritzkowsky A, Stoltidis M, Weissenborn S, Stark S, Ploner M, et al. Communication: papillomavirus DNA in basal cell carcinomas of immunocompetent patients: an accidental association?TITLE. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;115(1):124–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Dudzinski MR, Askin FB, Fowler Jr WC. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol. 1984;63(3 Suppl):57S–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sworn MJ, Hammond GT, Buchanan R. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma of the vulva. Case report. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1979;86(4):332–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kanitakis J, Arbona-Vidal E, Faure M. Extensive pigmented vulvar basal-cell carcinoma presenting as pruritus in an elderly woman. Dermatol Online J. 2011;17(1):8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Saini R, Sarnoff DS. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva presenting as unilateral pruritus. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008;7(3):288–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Perrone T, Twiggs LB, Adcock LL, Dehner LP. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma: an infrequently metastasizing neoplasm. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1987;6(2):152–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Mizushima J, Ohara K. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva with lymph node and skin metastasis – report of a case and review of 20 Japanese cases. J Dermatol. 1995;22(1):36–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Gleeson NC, Ruffolo EH, Hoffman MS, Cavanagh D. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva with groin node metastasis. Gynecol Oncol. 1994;53(3):366–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Winkelmann SE, Llorens AS. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol. 1990;38(1):138–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hoffman MS, Roberts WS, Ruffolo EH. Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva with inguinal lymph node metastases. Gynecol Oncol. 1988;29(1):113–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Cruz-Jimenez PR, Abell MR. Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma of vulva. Cancer. 1975;36(5):1860–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Farmer ER, Helwig EB. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of seventeen cases. Cancer. 1980;46(4):748–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Mulayim N, Foster Silver D, Tolgay Ocal I, Babalola E. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma: two unusual presentations and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;85(3):532–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Merino MJ, LiVolsi VA, Schwartz PE, Rudnicki J. Adenoid basal cell carcinoma of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1982;1(3):299–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Giuliani M, Di Stefano L, Zoccali G, Angelone E, Leocata P, Mascaretti G. Gorlin syndrome associated with basal cell carcinoma of the vulva: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2006;27(5):519–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Ishizawa T, Mitsuhashi Y, Sugiki H, Hashimoto H, Kondo S. Basal cell carcinoma within vulvar Paget’s disease. Dermatology. 1998;197(4):388–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Carr RA, Taibjee S, Sanders DSA. Basaloid skin tumours: basal cell carcinoma. Curr Diagn Pathol. 2007;13:252–72.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Beer TW, Shepherd P, Theaker JM. Ber EP4 and epithelial membrane antigen aid distinction of basal cell, squamous cell and basosquamous carcinomas of the skin. Histopathology. 2000;37(3):218–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Beller U, Benedet JL, Creasman WT, Ngan HY, Quinn MA, Maisonneuve P, et al. Carcinoma of the vagina. FIGO 26th annual report on the results of treatment in gynecological cancer. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;95 Suppl 1:S29–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Shah CA, Goff BA, Lowe K, Peters 3rd WA, Li CI. Factors affecting risk of mortality in women with vaginal cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(5):1038–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Creasman WT, Phillips JL, Menck HR. The National Cancer Data Base report on cancer of the vagina. Cancer. 1998;83(5):1033–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hellman K, Silfversward C, Nilsson B, Hellstrom AC, Frankendal B, Pettersson F. Primary carcinoma of the vagina: factors influencing the age at diagnosis. The Radiumhemmet series 1956–96. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14(3):491–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Eddy GL, Marks Jr RD, Miller 3rd MC, Underwood Jr PB. Primary invasive vaginal carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165(2):292–6; discussion 296–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Andersen ES. Primary carcinoma of the vagina: a study of 29 cases. Gynecol Oncol. 1989;33(3):317–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Pride GL, Schultz AE, Chuprevich TW, Buchler DA. Primary invasive squamous carcinoma of the vagina. Obstet Gynecol. 1979;53(2):218–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Eddy GL, Singh KP, Gansler TS. Superficially invasive carcinoma of the vagina following treatment for cervical cancer: a report of six cases. Gynecol Oncol. 1990;36(3):376–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Brinton LA, Nasca PC, Mallin K, Schairer C, Rosenthal J, Rothenberg R, et al. Case–control study of in situ and invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Gynecol Oncol. 1990;38(1):49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Iavazzo C, Vorgias G, Vecchini G, Katsoulis M, Akrivos T. Vaginal carcinoma in a completely prolapsed uterus. A case report. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;275(6):503–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Batista TP, Morais JA, Reis TJ, Macedo FI. A rare case of invasive vaginal carcinoma associated with vaginal prolapse. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;280(5):845–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Otton GR, Nicklin JL, Dickie GJ, Niedetzky P, Tripcony L, Perrin LC, et al. Early-stage vaginal carcinoma – an analysis of 70 patients. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14(2):304–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Petru E, Luck HJ, Stuart G, Gaffney D, Millan D, Vergote I. Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) proposals for changes of the current FIGO staging system. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;143(2):69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Davis KP, Stanhope CR, Garton GR, Atkinson EJ, O’Brien PC. Invasive vaginal carcinoma: analysis of early-stage disease. Gynecol Oncol. 1991;42(2):131–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Tjalma WA, Monaghan JM, de Barros Lopes A, Naik R, Nordin AJ, Weyler JJ. The role of surgery in invasive squamous carcinoma of the vagina. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;81(3):360–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Hellman K, Lundell M, Silfversward C, Nilsson B, Hellstrom AC, Frankendal B. Clinical and histopathologic factors related to prognosis in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16(3):1201–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Lee YC, Holcomb K, Buhl A, Holden J, Abulafia O. Rapid progression of primary vaginal squamous cell carcinoma in a young HIV-infected woman. Gynecol Oncol. 2000;78(3 Pt 1):380–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Miyazaki K, Yamaguchi K, Tohya T, Ohba T, Takatsuki K, Okamura H. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection as an oncogenic and prognostic risk factor in cervical and vaginal carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;77(1):107–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Daling JR, Madeleine MM, Schwartz SM, Shera KA, Carter JJ, McKnight B, et al. A population-based study of squamous cell vaginal cancer: HPV and cofactors. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;84(2):263–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    van Dam P, Sonnemans H, van Dam PJ, Verkinderen L, Dirix LY. Sentinel node detection in patients with vaginal carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;92(1):89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Frumovitz M, Gayed IW, Jhingran A, Euscher ED, Coleman RL, Ramirez PT, et al. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node detection in women with vaginal cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;108(3):478–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Ramzy I, Smout MS, Collins JA. Verrucous carcinoma of the vagina. Am J Clin Pathol. 1976;65(5):644–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Jones MJ, Levin HS, Ballard Jr LA. Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina; case report. Report of a case and review of the literature. Cleve Clin Q. 1981;48(2):305–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Wood WG, Giustini FG, Sohn S, Aranda RR. Verrucous carcinoma of the vagina. South Med J. 1978;71(4):368–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Okagaki T, Clark BA, Zachow KR, Twiggs LB, Ostrow RS, Pass F, et al. Presence of human papillomavirus in verrucous carcinoma (Ackerman) of the vagina Immunocytochemical, ultrastructural, and DNA hybridization studies. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1984;108(7):567–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Robertson DI, Maung R, Duggan MA. Verrucous carcinoma of the genital tract: is it a distinct entity? Can J Surg. 1993;36(2):147–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Baltzer J, Zander J. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the neovagina. Gynecol Oncol. 1989;35(1):99–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Harder Y, Erni D, Banic A. Squamous cell carcinoma of the penile skin in a neovagina 20 years after male-to-female reassignment. Br J Plast Surg. 2002;55(5):449–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Gallup DG, Castle CA, Stock RJ. Recurrent carcinoma in situ of the vagina following split-thickness skin graft vaginoplasty. Gynecol Oncol. 1987;26(1):98–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Van Dam PA, Irvine L, Lowe DG, Fisher C, Barton DP, Shepherd JH. Carcinoma in episiotomy scars. Gynecol Oncol. 1992;44(1):96–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Rose PG, Stoler MH, Abdul-Karim FW. Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma of the vagina. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1998;17(4):372–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Abrenio JK, Chung HI, Pomante R. Verrucous carcinoma arising from an artificial vagina. Obstet Gynecol. 1977;50(1 Suppl):18s–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Steiner E, Woernle F, Kuhn W, Beckmann K, Schmidt M, Pilch H, et al. Carcinoma of the neovagina: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;84(1):171–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Bobin JY, Zinzindohoue C, Naba T, Isaac S, Mage G. Primary squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with vaginal agenesis. Gynecol Oncol. 1999;74(2):293–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Dietl J, Horny HP, Kaiserling E. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the vagina: a case report with special reference to the immunophenotype of the tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphoreticular cells. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1994;13(2):186–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Patrelli TS, Silini EM, Berretta R, Thai E, Gizzo S, Bacchi Modena A, et al. Squamotransitional cell carcinoma of the vagina: diagnosis and clinical management: a literature review starting from a rare case report. Pathol Oncol Res. 2011;17(1):149–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Koenig C, Turnicky RP, Kankam CF, Tavassoli FA. Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma of the cervix: a report of 32 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1997;21(8):915–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    McCluggage WG. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the vagina. J Clin Pathol. 2001;54(12):964–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Mucitelli DR, Charles EZ, Kraus FT. Vulvovaginal polyps. Histologic appearance, ultrastructure, immunocytochemical characteristics, and clinicopathologic correlations. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1990;9(1):20–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Nucci MR, Young RH, Fletcher CD. Cellular pseudosarcomatous fibroepithelial stromal polyps of the lower female genital tract: an underrecognized lesion often misdiagnosed as sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24(2):231–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Maenpaa J, Soderstrom KO, Salmi T, Ekblad U. Large atypical polyps of the vagina during pregnancy with concomitant human papilloma virus infection. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1988;27(1):65–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Hartmann CA, Sperling M, Stein H. So-called fibroepithelial polyps of the vagina exhibiting an unusual but uniform antigen profile characterized by expression of desmin and steroid hormone receptors but no muscle-specific actin or macrophage markers. Am J Clin Pathol. 1990;93(5):604–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Stewart CJ, Amanuel B, Brennan BA, Jain S, Rajakaruna R, Wallace S. Superficial cervico-vaginal myofibroblastoma: a report of five cases. Pathology. 2005;37(2):144–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Laskin WB, Fetsch JF, Tavassoli FA. Superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma: fourteen cases of a distinctive mesenchymal tumor arising from the specialized subepithelial stroma of the lower female genital tract. Hum Pathol. 2001;32(7):715–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    McCluggage WG, Young RH. Tubulo-squamous polyp: a report of ten cases of a distinctive hitherto uncharacterized vaginal polyp. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007;31(7):1013–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Stewart CJ. Tubulo-squamous vaginal polyp with basaloid epithelial differentiation. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2009;28(6):563–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Chaturvedi A, Padel A. Tubulo-squamous polyp of the vagina with sebaceous glands: novel features in an uncommon recently described entity. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2010;29(5):494–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Tong B, Clarke BA, Ghazarian D. Tubulo-squamous polyp with mucinous differentiation: a unique morphological variant. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2011;30(5):518–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HistopathologyLeicester Royal InfirmaryLeicesterUK

Personalised recommendations