Links to Other Diseases

  • Graham Hughes
  • Shirish Sangle


Firstly, it is important to point out that primary APS rarely metamorphoses into other diseases. Many patients are concerned that in future they may develop lupus (not helped by the unfortunately named “lupus–anticoagulant” test). Unless the evidence of lupus (or Sjögren’s) is already present at diagnosis, progression or “widening” of the disease is very unusual.


Inflammatory Bowel Disease Celiac Disease Connective Tissue Disease Pernicious Anaemia Recurrent Miscarriage 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham Hughes
    • 1
  • Shirish Sangle
    • 2
  1. 1.The London Lupus CentreLondon Bridge HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Louise Coote Lupus UnitSt Thomas’ HospitalLondonUK

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