The Kidneys

  • Graham Hughes
  • Shirish Sangle


Perhaps because of the overlap of some cases of APS with lupus, recognition of the importance and extent of renal involvement in primary APS was initially slow. However, it is now known that a variety of renal pathologies can be seen.


Renal Artery Stenosis Renal Vein Thrombosis Improve Blood Pressure Control Renal Artery Occlusion Renal Artery Thrombosis 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham Hughes
    • 1
  • Shirish Sangle
    • 2
  1. 1.The London Lupus CentreLondon Bridge HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Louise Coote Lupus UnitSt Thomas’ HospitalLondonUK

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