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Introduction

  • Gilles Falquet
  • Claudine Métral
  • Jacques Teller
  • Christopher Tweed
Chapter
Part of the Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing book series (AI&KP, volume 1)

Abstract

Ontologies are increasingly recognized as essential components in many fields of information science. Ontologies were first employed in artificial intelligence, as a means to conceptualize some part of the real world. The first aim was to enable software system to reason about real-world entities. The CyC ontology (Lenat 1995) is typical of this perspective, it is comprised of several thousand concepts and tens of thousand facts, expressed as logical formulae. A second aim of ontologies was to provide a common conceptualization of a domain on which different agents agree. It is certainly this aspect of ontologies that triggered widespread interest in this knowledge engineering artifact in fields such as information system design, system integration and interoperation, natural language processing, or information retrieval. For instance, the Gene ontology (The Gene Ontology Consortium 2001) provides a common vocabulary to standardize the representation of gene and gene products.

Keywords

Urban Sustainability Ontology Engineering Conceptual Challenge Gene Ontology Consortium Information System Design 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

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  3. Guarino, N., Giaretta, P.: Ontologies and knowledge bases: Towards a terminological clarification. In: Mars, N. (ed.) Towards Very Large Knowledge Bases: Knowledge Building and Knowledge Sharing, pp. 25–32. IOS Press, Amsterdam (1995)Google Scholar
  4. Lenat, D.B.: Cyc: a large-scale investment in knowledge infrastructure. Commun. ACM 38(11), 33–38 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. The Gene Ontology Consortium: Creating the gene ontology resource: design and implementation. Genome Res. 11, 1425–1433 (2001). doi:10.1101/gr.180801CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilles Falquet
    • 1
  • Claudine Métral
    • 1
  • Jacques Teller
    • 2
  • Christopher Tweed
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre universitaire d’informatique, University of GenevaCarougeSwitzerland
  2. 2.LEMA Université de LiègeLiègeBelgium
  3. 3.Welsh School of ArchitectureCardiff UniversityWalesUK

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