Miscellaneous Specimens and Ancillary Techniques



This chapter refers to miscellaneous specimens – needle core biopsies, fine needle aspirates, cytospins, liquid-based cytology, and cell blocks. Aids to macroscopic description and dissection such as specimen photography and radiography and intraoperative frozen section assessment are considered. Key ancillary techniques now playing an essential role in diagnosis, prognosis, and management decisions are highlighted. These include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and molecular genetic analysis.


Core Biopsy Needle Core Biopsy Malignant Mesothelioma Small Biopsy Multidisciplinarian Team Meeting 


  1. Bahrami A, Truong LD, Ro JY. Undifferentiated tumor: true identity by immunohistochemistry. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008;132:326–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. De Kerviler E, Guermazi A, Zagdanski AM, et al. Image-guided core-needle biopsy in patients with suspected or recurrent lymphoma. Cancer. 2000;89:647–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dodson A. Modern methods for diagnostic immunocytochemistry. Curr Diagn Pathol. 2002;8:113–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Groenen PJTA, Blokx WAM, Diepenbroek C, Burgers L, Visinoni F, Wesseling P, van Krieken JHJM. Preparing pathology for personalized medicine: possibilities for improvement of the pre-analytical phase. Histopathology. 2011;59:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Human tissue and biological samples for use in research: operational and ethical guidelines. Medical Research Council, London. 2001. http://www.mrc.ac.uk/pdf-tissue_guide_fin.pdf. Accessed on November 2002
  6. Jasani B, Rhodes A. The role and mechanism of high temperature antigen retrieval in diagnostic pathology. Curr Diagn Pathol. 2001;7:153–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lester SC. Chapter 6. Operating Room Consultations. In: Manual of Surgical Pathology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2007.Google Scholar
  8. Matthews TJ, Denney PA. Digital imaging of specimens using a wet scanning technique. J Clin Pathol. 2001;54:326–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. McKay B. Electron microscopy in tumour diagnosis. In: Fletcher CDM, editor. Diagnostic Histopathology of Tumours, vol. 2. 3rd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2007. p. 1831–59.Google Scholar
  10. McManus DT, Anderson NH. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of the breast. Curr Diagn Pathol. 2001;7:262–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Micklem K, Sanderson J. Digital imaging in pathology. Curr Diagn Pathol. 2001;7:131–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mount SL, Cooper K. Beware of biotin: a source of false positive immunohistochemistry. Curr Diagn Pathol. 2001;7:161–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nocito A, Kononen J, Kallioniemi OP, Sauter G. Tissue microarrays for high-throughput molecular pathology research. Int J Cancer. 2001;94:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pecciarini L, Giulia Cangi M, Doglioni C. Identifying the primary sites of metastatic carcinoma: the increasing role of immunohistochemistry. Curr Diagn Pathol. 2001;7:168–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Perou CM, Sorlie T, Eisen MB, et al. Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature. 2000;406:747–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shipp MA, Ross KN, Tamayo P, et al. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma outcome prediction by gene-expression profiling and supervised machine learning. Nat Med. 2002;8:68–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Stricker T, Catenacci DVT, Seiwert TY. Molecular profiling of cancer – the future of personalized medicine: a primer on cancer biology and the tools necessary to bring molecular testing to the clinic. Semin Oncol. 2011;38:173–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Swerdlow SH, Compo E, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, Stein H, Thiele J, Vardiman JW. WHO Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics. Tumours of Haemopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon: IARC Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  19. Teruya-Feldstein J. The immunohistochemistry laboratory: looking at molecules and preparing for tomorrow. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010;134:1659–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Walker RA, Bartlett JMS, Dowsett M, Ellis IO, Hanby AM, Jasani B, Miller K, Pinder SE. HER2 testing in the UK: further update to recommendations. J Clin Pathol. 2008;61:818–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Histopathology LaboratoryBelfast City Hospital, Belfast Health and Social Care TrustBelfastUK

Personalised recommendations