Direct Adaptive Control

  • Ioan Doré Landau
  • Rogelio Lozano
  • Mohammed M’Saad
  • Alireza Karimi
Part of the Communications and Control Engineering book series (CCE)


Direct adaptive control covers schemes where the parameters of the controller are directly updated from a signal error (adaption error) reflecting the performance error. The chapter presents strategies for direct adaptive control in a deterministic and in a stochastic environment and the corresponding analysis. This includes adaptive tracking and regulation with independent objectives, adaptive minimum variance control and their extensions. Robustification of direct adaptive control schemes is also discussed.


Controller Parameter Unmodeled Dynamic Adaptive Control Scheme Model Reference Adaptive Control Adaptive Tracking 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Åström KJ (1980) Direct methods for non minimum phase systems. In: Proc IEEE—CDC 80, pp 611–615 Google Scholar
  2. Åström KJ, Wittenmark B (1973) On self-tuning regulators. Automatica 9:185–199 MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Åström KJ, Wittenmark B (1995) Adaptive control, 2nd edn. Addison Wesley, Boston MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen HF, Guo L (1991) Identification and stochastic adaptive control. Birkhauser, Boston MATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Cluett WR, Shah SL, Fisher DG (1987) Robust design of adaptive control systems using conic sector theory. Automatica 23:221–224 MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Desoer CA, Vidyasagar M (1975) Feedback systems: input-output properties. Academic Press, New York MATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Dugard L, Egardt B, Landau ID (1982) Design and convergence analysis of stochastic model reference adaptive controllers. Int J Control 35:755–773 MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dumont G (1992) Fifteen years in the life of an adaptive controller. In: Proc IFAC-ACASP symp. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 261–272 Google Scholar
  9. Egardt B (1979) Stability of adaptive controllers. Lectures notes in control and information sciences. Springer, Heidelberg MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eliott H (1980) Direct adaptive pole placement with application to non-minimum phase systems. IEEE Trans Autom Control 27:720–722 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fuchs JJ (1982) Indirect stochastic adaptive control the general delay-colored noise case. IEEE Trans Autom Control AC-27:470–472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goodwin GC, Sin KS (1984) Adaptive filtering prediction and control. Prentice Hall, New York MATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Goodwin GC, Ramadge PJ, Caines PE (1980b) Stochastic adaptive control. SIAM J Control 18 Google Scholar
  14. Goodwin GC, Sin KS, Soluja KK (1980c) Stochastic adaptive control and prediction: the general delay-coloured noise case. IEEE Trans on Automatic Control AC-25 Google Scholar
  15. Guo L (1993) The Åström-Wittenmark self-tuning regulator revisited and ELS-based adaptive trackers. IEEE Trans Autom Control AC-40 Google Scholar
  16. Guo L (1996) Self-convergence of weighted least squares with applications to stochastic adaptive control. IEEE Trans Autom Control AC-41(1):79–89 Google Scholar
  17. Ioannou PA, Kokotovic PV (1983) Adaptive systems with reduced order models. Lecture notes in control and information sciences, vol 47. Springer, Heidelberg CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johansson R (1995) Supermartingale analysis of minimum variance adaptive control. Control Theory Adv Technol, Part 2 10:993–1013 MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. Kreisselmeier G, Anderson BDO (1986) Robust model reference adaptive control. IEEE Trans Autom Control AC-31:127–132 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kumar R, Moore JB (1982) Convergence of adaptive minimum variance algorithm via weighting coefficient selection. IEEE Trans Autom Control AC-27:146–153 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Landau ID (1981) Model reference adaptive controllers and stochastic self-tuning regulators: a unified approach. Trans ASME, J Dyn Syst Meas Control 103:404–414 MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Landau ID (1982a) Combining model reference adaptive controllers and stochastic self tuning regulators. Automatica 18(1):77–84 MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Landau ID, Lozano R (1981) Unification and evaluation of discrete-time explicit model reference adaptive designs. Automatica 17(4):593–611 MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ljung L (1977b) On positive real transfer functions and the convergence of some recursions. IEEE Trans Autom Control AC-22:539–551 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lozano R, Landau ID (1982) Quasi-direct adaptive control for non-minimum phase systems. Trans ASME J Dyn Syst Meas Control 104 Google Scholar
  26. Lozano R, Ortega R (1987) Reformulation of the parameter identification problem for systems with bounded disturbances. Automatica 23(2):247–251 MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. M’Saad M, Ortega R, Landau ID (1985) Adaptive controllers for discrete-time systems with arbitrary zeros: an overview. Automatica 21(4):413–423 MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ortega R (1993) Adaptive control of discrete time systems: a performance oriented approach. In: Leondes C (ed) Control of dynamic systems: advances in theory and applications, vol 55. Academic Press, New York Google Scholar
  29. Ortega R, Lozano-Leal R (1987) A note on direct adaptive control of systems with bounded disturbances. Automatica 23(2):253–254 MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ortega R, Tang Y (1989) Robustness of adaptive controllers—a survey. Automatica 25(5):651–677 MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ortega R, Praly L, Landau ID (1985) Robustness of discrete-time direct adaptive controllers. IEEE Trans Autom Control AC-30(12):1179–1187 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Popov VM (1960) Nouveaux critères de stabilité pour les systèmes automatiques non linéaires. Rev Electrotechn Energ 5(1) Google Scholar
  33. Ren W, Kumar PR (2002) Stochastic adaptive prediction and model reference control. IEEE Trans Autom Control 39(10):2047–2060 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rohrs C, Valavani L, Athans M, Stein G (1981) Analytical verification of undesirable properties of direct model reference adaptive control algorithms. In: Proc IEEE-CDC, San Diego, USA Google Scholar
  35. Seborg DE, Edgar TF, Shah SL (1989) Adaptive control strategies for process control: a survey. AIChE J 32(6):881–913 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shah S, Franklin GF (1982) On satisfying strict positive real condition for convergence by overparameterization. IEEE Trans Autom Control AC-27(3):715–716 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ydstie BE (1989) Stability of discrete model reference adaptive control revisited. Syst Control Lett 13:429–438 MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zames G (1966) On the input-output stability of nonlinear time-varying systems, Parts I and II. IEEE Trans Autom Control AC-11:228–238, and 465–477 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioan Doré Landau
    • 1
  • Rogelio Lozano
    • 2
  • Mohammed M’Saad
    • 3
  • Alireza Karimi
    • 4
  1. 1.Département d’AutomatiqueGIPSA-LAB (CNRS/INPG/UJF)St. Martin d’HeresFrance
  2. 2.UMR-CNRS 6599, Centre de Recherche de Royalieu, Heuristique et Diagnostic des Systèmes ComplexesUniversité de Technologie de CompiègneCompiègneFrance
  3. 3.Centre de Recherche (ENSICAEN), Laboratoire GREYCÉcole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de CaenCaen CedexFrance
  4. 4.Laboratoire d’AutomatiqueÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneLaussanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations