Greening the Airport Airside Area II: Liquid Hydrogen as an Alternative Fuel

Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


Global air traffic has increased from 0.5 trillion RPK (Revenue Passenger Kilometres) in 1971 to about 4.25 trillion RPKs in 2006. Some long-term forecasts by international air transport organisations (IATA, ICAO, ACI), and in particular by the two main manufacturers of commercial aircraft Boeing and Airbus, predict rather stable RPK growth at an average annual rate of 5% over the next 20 years.


Fuel Type Average Annual Rate Aviation Fuel Aircraft Type Traffic Growth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    ACI (2008) Airports—actions on climate change. Airport Council International, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    AIRBUS (2006) Airbus global market forecast. Airbus industries, Toulouse, FranceGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alder HP (1987) Hydrogen in air transportation feasibility study for zurich airport switzerland. Int J Hydrogen Energy 8(12):571–585Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Behrend ES, Pohl HW, Roster N (1997) Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 4(1):239–269Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boeing (2007) Current market outlook 2007: how will you travel through life? Boeing commercial airplanes: market analysis, Seattle, WA, USAGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brewer GD (1976) Aviation usage of liquid hydrogen fuel—prospects and problems. Int J Hydrogen Energy 1(1):65–88CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brewer GD (1978) Hydrogen usage in air transportation. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2(3):217–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brewer GD (1979) A plan for active development of LH2 for use in aircraft. Int J Hydrogen Energy 3(4):169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brewer GD (1982) The prospects for liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft. Int J Hydrogen Energy 1(7):21–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brewer GD (1991) Hydrogen aircraft technology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chevron (2006) Alternative jet fuels addendum 1 to aviation fuels, technical reviews (FTR-3/A1). Chevron Corporation, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Coenen RM (2009) A proposal to convert air transport to clean hydrogen (CATCH). Int J Hydrogen Energy 19(34):8451–8453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    DfT (2009) Adding capacity at heathrow airport: decisions following consultation. Report, department for transport, London, UK Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    EC (2000) The way to sustainable mobility: cutting the external cost of transport, brochure of the european commission, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    EC (2003) Liquid hydrogen fuelled aircraft system analysis (CRYOPLANE). European commission 5th R&D framework program (Growth 1998-2002). Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    EWG (2007) Crude oil supply outlook. Energy watch group, report no. 3/2007, Berlin, Germany, p 101wReGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    ICAO (1995) Aircraft engine emissions, environmental protection, annex 16, vol 2. International civil aviation organization, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    IEA (2006) Hydrogen production and storage: research & development priorities and gaps. International energy agency, Paris, France Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    IPCC (1999) Aviation and the global atmosphere. Intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    IPCC (2001) Climate change 2001–synthesis report. Contribution of working groups I, II, and II and III to the 3rd assessment report of IPCC, intergovernmental panel of climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Janic M (2007) The sustainability of air transportation: a quantitative analysis and assessment, Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Janic M (2008) The potential of liquid hydrogen for the future ‘carbon neutral’ air transport system. Transp Res D 8(13):428–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Janic M (2010) Is liquid hydrogen a solution for mitigating air pollution by airports? Int J Liq Hydrogen 5(35):2190–2202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Korycinski PF (1978) Air terminals and liquid hydrogen commercial air transports. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2(3):231–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Korycinski PF (1978) Some early perspectives on ground requirements of liquid hydrogen air transports. Int J Hydrogen Energy 3(3):335–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Learmount D (2007) New-technology aircraft to reduce average fuel consumption. (
  27. 27.
    Mikolowsky WT, Noggle LW (1978) The potential of liquid hydrogen as a military aircraft fuel. Int J Hydrogen Energy 4(3):449–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Price RO (1991) Liquid Hydrogen—An Alternative Aviation Fuel? Int J Hydrogen Energy 16(8):557–562 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Peschka W, Wilhelm LA (2001) Liquid Hydrogen: Fuel Of The Future, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, p. 303 Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Typolev AA (1994) “”Utilization of Liquid Hydrogen ir Natural Gas as Aviation Fuels”, Conference Proceedings – Projects Energy ’93, Ed. R. E. Billings and E. Dayton, International Academy of Sciences, Independence, Michigan, USA, p. 104 Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wilkinson KG (1983) An airline view of LH2 as a fuel for commercial aircraft. Int J Hydrogen Energy 10(8):793–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Winter CJ (1990) Hydrogen in high-speed air transportation. Int J Hydrogen Energy 8(15):579–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wood HJ, Long GR, Morehouse DF (2003) Long-term world oil supply scenarios: the future is neither as bleak or rosy as some asserts. EIA-energy information administration, Washington DC, USA.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Transport and Planning, Faculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesDelft University of TechnologyCN DelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations