Advertisement

Greening Airports II: Transforming an Airport into a True Multimodal Transport Node

  • Milan Janić
Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

At many large airports, traffic growth has caused an increase of airside and landside congestion and airline and air passenger delays, noise, local emissions of greenhouse gases, and waste. Consequently, transforming such airports into true multimodal transport nodes is considered one of the long term alternatives for mitigating some of these impacts. What does this imply? Airports are, by definition, multimodal transport nodes, which enable air passengers and air cargo to transfer from the airports’ ground access systems/modes to the air transport system/mode, and vice versa, as will be described in more detail in  Chap. 7. Under such circumstances, developing such airports into true multimodal transport nodes implies connecting them to ground transport systems/modes, providing similar services to/from them as the air transport system/mode over the specified short- to medium-haul inter-city and inter-airport travel distances (routes). In this respect, air passengers can be transferred at the airport on two levels: (a) firstly, between the airport ground access systems and one of the longer distance transport systems/modes; and (b) secondly, between two inter-city and inter-airport transport systems/modes. By simultaneously providing transport capacities through at least two either competing or complementing modes APT (Air Passenger Transport) and HSR (High-Speed Rail), the airports in question could be considered to operate as true multimodal transport nodes.

Keywords

Noise Exposure Energy Consumption Rate Schedule Delay Airport Area Average Load Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    AEA (2008) Yearbook 2000–2006. Association of European airlines, Paris, France, 2007Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Archer LJ (1993) Aircraft emissions and environment. Oxford Institute for energy studies, Oxford, UK EV 17Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ATAG (1996) The economic benefits of air transport. Air transport action group, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    ATAG (2000) European air traffic forecast 1980–2010. Air transport action group, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    BAA (2010) High-speed rail access to Heathrow: BAA submission to lord mawhinney report. British airport Authority, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    CEC (1993a) European high-speed rail network: Socio-economic impact study. Commission of the European Communities, and Directorate general for transport, Final Report, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    CEC (1993b) The European high-speed train network: environmental impact assessment, executive summary. Commission of the European Communities, Directorate general for transport, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    CEC (1995) High-speed Europe. High level group ‘the European high speed train network’. Commission of the European Communities, Directorate general for transport, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    CE Delft (2008) Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport sector, (produced within the study internalization measures and policies for all external cost of transport (IMPACT)). CE Delft-Solutions for Environment Economy and Technology Delft, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chevron (2002) Aviation fuels, Chevron Product Corporation. http://www.chevron.com/prodserv/fuels
  11. 11.
    DfT (2009) Britain’s transport infrastructure—adding capacity at Heathrow: decisions following consultation. DfT publications, department for transport, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    EC (1998) Interaction between high-speed rail and air passenger transport. Final Report, Action COST 318, European Commission, DG VII, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    EC (2002) Developing EU (International) rail passenger transport. OGM-Final Report European Commission. Directorate General Energy and Transport, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    EC (2004) Statistical yearbook: transport–2004. European Commission, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    EC (2009) EU energy and transport in figures, statistical pocket book. Directorate General for Energy and Transport, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    ECMT (2003) Airports as multimodal interchange nodes. Conclusion of Round Table 126, European Conference of Ministers of Transport, Paris Cedex 16, France, p 4Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    EEC (2004) Evaluation of true cost to airlines of one minute of airborne or ground delays. Westminster University (UK). Performance Review Unit, EUROCONTROL, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    EEC (2005) Potential airport intermodality development. WP 2.1.1 DOC, EUROCONTROL, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    EEC (2007) Standard inputs for EUROCONTROL cost benefit analysis. EUROCONTROL, Belgium BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    EIA (2002) Voluntary reporting on greenhouse gases: Form–1605. Energy information administration. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    FAA (2007) FAA operations & performance data, Department of Transportation. Federal Aviation Administration. http://www.apo.data.faa.gov/, Washington DC, USA
  22. 22.
    HMMH (1996) Summary of european high-speed rail noise and vibration measurements. HMMH Report No. 293630-2, Miller & Harris Inc., Burlington, UKGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Horonjeff R, McKelvey FX (1994) Planning & design of airports, 4th edn. McGraw Hill Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    ICAO (1993a) Aircraft engine emissions, environmental protection. Annex 16, vol 2. International Civil Aviation Organisation, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    ICAO (1993b) Aircraft noise, environmental protection. Annex 16, vol 1. International Civil aviation Organization, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    ITA (1991) Rail/Air complementarity in Europe: the impact of high-speed rail services. Institute du Transport Aèrien, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Janic M (1999) Aviation and externalities: the accomplishments and problems. Transp Res D 4:159–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Janic M (2000) Analysis and modeling of air transport system: capacity quality of services and economics. Gordon and Breach Science Publisher, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Janic M (2003) Multiple criteria evaluation of High-Speed Rail, TRANSRAPID MAGLEV and air passenger transport systems in Europe. Transp Plann Technol 26(6):491–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Janic M (2003b) High-Speed Rail and air passenger transport: a comparison of the operational environmental performance. Proc Inst Mech Eng F J Rail Rapid Transit 217(4):259–269Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Janic M (2009) The airport analysis, planning, and design: demand, capacity, and congestion. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Janic M (2010) True multimodalism for mitigating the airport congestion: substitution of air passenger transport by high-speed rail. Transportation Research Record (TRR) (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lukaszewicz P, Anderson E (2009) Green train energy consumption: estimation of high-speed rail operations. GRONATAGET, KTH Railway Group, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    RMT (2009) Who says there is no alternative? An assessment of the potential of rail to cut air travel. Rail and maritime transport (Union of Workers), London, UKGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ruijgrok CJJ (2000) Elements of Aviation Acoustics. Het Spinhuis Publishers, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    SDG (2006) Air and rail competition and complementarity. Steer Davies Gleave. Study prepared for European Commission DG Energy and transport, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sean B (2005) The Role of Airports in the Transport Chains. ECMT (European Conference of Ministers of Transport), Round Table 120, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    TGVweb (2002) High-Speed Rail Safety: TGV Accidents. http://www.mercurio.iet.unipi.it/tgv
  39. 39.
    UIC (2002) Shaping the Railway of the 21st Century: AIR/HSR from Competition to Complementarity. Presentation. http://www.uic.asso.fr/d, International Union of Railways, Paris, France
  40. 40.
    UIC (2008) Fast Track & Sustainable Mobility. 5th World Congress on High Speed Rail, International Union of Railways, 17–19 March, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p 10 Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang Y, Hansen M (2007) Real Time Inter-Modal Substitution (RTIMS) as an Airport Congestion Management Strategy. 87th Transportation Research Board (TRB) Conference, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Transport and Planning, Faculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesDelft University of TechnologyCN DelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations