Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


The greener or more sustainable development of the air transport system implies its continuous growth, contributing to a range of social-economic effects (benefits) while simultaneously mitigating or even diminishing its negative impacts-costs on the environment and society in both relative and absolute terms. The former mainly includes the system’s contribution to the local, regional, and national GDP (Gross Domestic Product) through employment, trade, related welfare, and globalisation of economies and societies. The latter includes consumption of energy obtained from non-renewable sources (fossil fuels–crude oil) and the related emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides), local surrounding noise and land use by airports, congestion and delays of airlines and their users—air passengers and cargo shipments, air traffic incidents/accidents, waste, security of personnel and service users, safety of operations, and related activities.


Related Emission High Speed Rail Cargo Shipment Related Welfare Additional Land 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Transport and Planning, Faculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesDelft University of TechnologyCN DelftThe Netherlands

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