The Use of External Fixation in the Lower Extremity

  • Lawrence A. DiDomenico
  • Bruce H. Ziran
  • Laurence Zachary Cane


External fixation has an extensive history that can be traced back to the days of Hippocrates.1 In those days, external fixation consisted of wooden rods tied around a fractured limb acting as a splint. Despite the advances of technology and metallurgy, modern principles of external fixation are still based largely upon its early predecessors.


External Fixation Distraction Osteogenesis Stable Base Ankle Arthrodesis Pilon Fracture 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence A. DiDomenico
    • 1
  • Bruce H. Ziran
    • 2
  • Laurence Zachary Cane
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryNorthside Medical CenterYoungstownUSA
  2. 2.Department of OrthopedicsSt. Elizabeth HospitalYoungstownUSA
  3. 3.Central Carolina Foot and Ankle AssociatesDurhamUSA

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