The Pediatric Foot

  • Roland C. Russell
  • Michael M. Stephens


Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) refers to a congenital deformity that consists of hindfoot varus, heel inversion with forefoot supination and adduction with varying degrees of first ray plantarflexion. The condition was first described by Hippocrates in 460–377 B.C. and is often referred to as a “clubfoot,” but this is an antiquated, unscientific description that should be banished to the history books. The incidence of CTEV is 1/1000 of live births in Europe with a higher incidence in New Zealand. It is more common in males (male:female, 2:1) and is bilateral in 50% of cases. The diagnosis can be made in utero on the 20 week ultrasound scan, although this is usually made at birth.


Tibialis Anterior Tendon Metatarsal Osteotomy Medial Cuneiform Talar Head Triple Arthrodesis 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsThe Children’s University HospitalDublin 7Ireland
  2. 2.Department of OrthopaedicsThe Children’s University HospitalDublinIreland

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