Ankle Instability

  • Daniel R. Stephenson
  • Timothy P. Charlton
  • David B. Thordarson


Ankle injuries are among the most commonly treated musculoskeletal injuries. In the United States, there are 23,000 ankle injuries each day, and the United Kingdom sees nearly 5,000.1,2 Within orthopedics, estimates place the incidence of ankle sprains between 10% and 25% of all musculoskeletal injuries.3,4 Of these, nearly 85% involve the lateral ankle complex.5 The sequelae of these injuries can be variable. Conservative management with functional rehabilitation can lead to good-to-excellent results in 70–85% of these injuries,6 but 20–40% will have persistent pain and instability.7,8


Ankle Sprain Medial Malleolus Ankle Instability Ankle Injury Peroneal Tendon 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel R. Stephenson
    • 2
  • Timothy P. Charlton
    • 1
  • David B. Thordarson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUSC Keck School of Medicine Surgery of the Foot and AnkleLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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