Passive Realization of Nonlinear Virtual Environments
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Passivity theory applied to haptics is for the most part restricted to the case of linear, one-dimensional virtual environments. Here, the application of passivity theory is extended to account for nonlinear, multidimensional, non-conservative virtual environments with quantization and delay. To analyze these more general cases, the notion ofpassive realization, stricter than passivity, is introduced. This notion is exemplified with multidimensional linear virtual environments and with experiments involving nonlinear environments.
KeywordsForce Field Virtual Environment Haptic Device Haptic Interaction Passivity Analysis
This work was funded by a Collaborative Research and Development Grant “High Fidelity Surgical Simulation” from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada (nserc), and by Immersion Corp. Additional funding is a from a Discovery Grant fromnserc for the second author. The authors would like to thanks the reviewers for several insightful comments.
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