We discuss the properties of force feedback haptic simulation systems that fundamentally limit the re-creation of periodic gratings, and hence, of any texture. These include sampling rate, device resolution, and structural dynamics. Basic sampling limitations are analyzed in terms of the Nyquist and the Courant conditions. The analysis proposes that noise due to sampling and other sources injected in the system may prevent it to achieve acceptable performance in most operating conditions, unless special precautions such as the use of a reconstruction filter, make the closed-loop more robust to noise. The structural response of aphantom 1.0a device was such that no such filter could be found, and the system introduced heavy distortion in gratings as coarse as 10 mm. The Pantograph Mark-II device having more favorable structural properties could reliably create gratings between 1 and 10 mm.
KeywordsForce Feedback Haptic Device Sinusoidal Grating Reconstruction Filter Nyquist Criterion
This research was supported in part by the Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Systems, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. G. Campion is the recipient of aprecarn Inc. scholarship.
The authors would like to thank Prof. Hong Z. Tan of Purdue University for insightful comments on an early draft of this paper and the reviewers for their excellent suggestions. The authors are indebted to Prof. David Ostry of McGill University for letting us use his laboratory’sphantom, to Prof. Keyvan Hashtrudi-Zaad of Queen’s University for showing us how to interface it; to Hsin-Yun Yao of the Haptics Lab at McGill for custom-packaging the miniature accelerometers, and to Andrew Havens Gosline also from the Haptics Lab for proof-reading the paper.
The authors would like to acknowledge Seigo Harashima fromricoh Company for many keen discussions on haptic textures.
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