Advertisement

Supporting Resilience and Positive Outcomes in Families, Children, and Adolescents

  • Deborah Christie
  • Katharine D. Barnard
Chapter

Abstract

Grasping the immediate and long-term implications of diagnosis of diabetes is a complex process for the child or young person as well as their parents and the wider family. Learning to live with diabetes is the beginning of a long and challenging journey. At a practical level, it will involve regular visits to hospital, a need to “adhere” to complex medical regimens, and will demand changes in food and activities. Immediate and ongoing medical investigations may be invasive, uncomfortable, or painful with ongoing treatment regimens requiring medication, injections, blood measurements, and brain or body scans. Taking in the immediate demands of treatment can be confusing and frustrating. The realization of the potential long-term impact of the illness on a young person’s hopes, dreams, and ambitions can be devastating.

Keywords

Young People Young Person Marital Satisfaction Complex Medical Regimen Positive Coping Strategy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer; 1984.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Folkman S, Moskowitz JT. Positive affect and the other side of coping. Am Psychol. 2000;55:647–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gannoni AF, Shute RH. Parental and child perspectives on adaptation to childhood chronic illness: a qualitative study. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;15(1):39–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    George E, Iveson I, Ratner H. Problem to solution brief therapy with individuals and families. London: BT Press; 1999.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yeo M, Sawyer S. Chapter 5: Chronic illness and disability. In: Tripp J, Viner R, editors. ABC of adolescence. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2005. p. 16–8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Christie D, Viner R. ABC of adolescence. Adolescent development. Br Med J. 2005;330(7486):301–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lowes L, Gregory JW, Lyne P. Newly diagnosed childhood diabetes: a psychosocial transition for parents? J Adv Nurs. 2005;50(3):253–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bowes S, Lowes L, Warner J, Gregory JW. Chronic sorrow in parents in parents of children with type 1 diabetes. J Adv Nurs. 2008;65(5):992–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cadman D, Rosenbaum P, Boyle M, Offord DR. Children with chronic illness: family and parent demographic characteristics and psychosocial adjustment. Pediatrics. 1991;87:884–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rice F. Genetics of childhood and adolescent depression: insights into etiological heterogeneity and challenges for future genomic research. Genome Med. 2010;2:68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stewart SM, Rao U, Emslie GJ, Klein D, White PC. Depressive symptoms predict hospitalization for adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics. 2005;115(5):1315–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barnard K, Thomas S, Royle P, Noyes K, Waugh N. Fear of hypoglycaemia in parents of young children with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review. BMC Pediatr. 2010;10:50–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stewart SM, Rao U, White P. Depression and diabetes in children and adolescents. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2005;17(5):626–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Polonsky W, Anderson B, Lohrer P, Welch G, Jacobson A, Aponte J. Assessment of diabetes related distress. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:754–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peveler R, Bryden K, Neil H, et al. The relationship of disordered eating habits and attitudes to clinical outcomes in young adult females with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(1):84–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Horsch A, Mcmanus F, Kennedy P, Edge J. Anxiety, depressive, and posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers of children with type 1 diabetes. J Trauma Stress. 2007;20:881–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hanas R, Ludvigsson J. Experience of pain from insulin injection and needle phobia in young patients with IDDM. Pract Diab. 1997;14:95–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Naguib J, Kulinskaya E, Lomax C, Garralda E. Neurocognitive performance in children with type 1 diabetes – a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Psychol. 2009;34(3):271–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gaudieri PA, Chen RS, Greer TF, Holmes CS. Cognitive function in children with type 1 diabetes – a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(9):1892–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Taylor H, Alden J. Age-related differences in outcomes following childhood brain insults: an introduction and overview. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1997;3:555–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davis E, Trundle C, Ives J, et al. High prevalence of structural CNS abnormalities in children with early onset diabetes. Diabetes. 2002;53(Supplements):A3.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schoenle E, Schoenle D, Molinari L, et al. Impaired intellectual development in children with type 1 diabetes: association with HbA1c, age at diagnosis and sex. Diabetologia. 2002;45:108–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brands A, Biessels G, De Haan E, et al. The effects of type 1 diabetes on cognitive performance. Diabetes Care. 2005;288(6):728–37.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Malik JA, Koot HM. Explaining the adjustment of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: role of diabetes – specific and psychosocial factors. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:774–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Soliday E, Kool E, Lande MB. Psychosocial adjustment in children with kidney disease. J Pediatr. 2000;25(2):93–103.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mednick L, Gargollo P, Oliva M, Grant R, Borer J. Stress and coping of parents of young children diagnosed with bladder exstrophy. J Urol. 2009;181:1312–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Williams LB, Laffel LM, Hood KK. Diabetes-specific family conflict and psychological distress in paediatric type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2009;26(9):908–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hilliard ME, Monaghan M, Cogen FR, Streisand R. Parent stress and child behaviour among young children with type 1 diabetes. Child Care Health Dev. 2010;37(2):224–32. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01162.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Patton SR, Dolan LM, Henry R, Powers SW. Parental fear of hypoglycemia: young children treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007;8:362–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Patton SR, Dolan LM, Henry R, Powers SW. Fear of hypoglycemia in parents of young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2008;15:252–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jaser SS, Whittemore R, Ambrosino JM, Lindemann E, Grey M. Coping and psychosocial adjustment in mothers of young children with type 1 diabetes. Child Health Care. 2009;38:91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Azar R, Solomon CK. Coping strategies of parents facing child diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr Nurs. 2001;16(6):418–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hartman AF, Radin MB, McConnell B. Parent-to-parent support: a critical component of health care services for families. Issues Compr Pediatr Nurs. 1992;15:55–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Berg CA, Wiebe DJ, Beveridge RM, Paler DL, Korbel CD, Upchurch R, Swinyard MT, Lindsay R, Donaldson DL. Mother-child appraised involvement in coping with diabetes stressor and emotional adjustment. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32(8):995–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Athanasakos E, Starling J, Ross F, Nunn K, Cass D. An example of psychological adjustment in chronic illness: Hirchsprung’s disease. Pediatr Surg Int. 2006;22:319–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Misuraca A, Di Gennaro M, Lioniello M, et al. Summer camps for diabetic children: an experience in Campania, Italy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1996;32(1–2):91–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Karaguzel G, Bircan I, Erisir S, et al. Metabolic control and ­educational status in children with type 1 diabetes: effects of a summer camp and intensive insulin treatment. Acta Diabetol. 2005;42(4):156–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Northam EA, Matthews LK, Anderson PJ, Cameron FJ, Werther GA. Psychiatric morbidity and health outcome in type 1 diabetes: perspectives from a prospective longitudinal study. Diabet Med. 2005;22:152–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Snoek FJ, Van Der Ven NCW, Twisk JWR, Hogenelst MHE, Tromp-Wever AME, Van Der Ploeg HM, Heine RJ. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) compared with blood glucose awareness training (BGAT) in poorly controlled Type 1 diabetic patients: long-term effects on HbA1c moderated by depression. A randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med. 2008;25(11):1337–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Steed L, Cooke D, Newman S. A systematic review of psychological outcomes following education, self-management and psychological interventions in diabetes mellitus. Patient Educ Couns. 2003;51:5–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Riekert KA, Drotar D. Adherence to medical treatment in pediatric chronic illness: critical issues and unanswered questions. In: Drotar D, editor. Promoting adherence to medical treatment in chronic childhood illness: concepts, models, and intervention. Mahwah: Erlbaum; 2000. p. 3–32.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    De Shazer S. Clues: investigating solutions in brief therapy. New York: Norton; 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child and Adolescent Psychological ServicesUniversity College London Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of SouthamptonChilworth, SouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations